Nonlinear EEG analysis during sleep in premature and full-term newborns.
ABSTRACT Recently it has been shown that the adult sleep EEG is mostly determined by high-dimensional, linear dynamics with the exception of the A phase of the cyclic alternating pattern which displays more synchronized nonlinear dynamics. It is not known how these two different types of brain dynamics develop in early life; for this reason the aim of this study was that to extend the nonlinear analysis to the EEG during sleep recorded in premature and full-term newborns.
EEG epochs were chosen from a total of 24 polygraphic recordings from 14 babies (9 males and 5 females) aged between 33 weeks 3 days and 4 months conceptional age. All subjects were neurologically normal and showed normal psychomotor development at follow-up. A total of 243 artifact-free epochs was chosen during active sleep (AS, 74 total epochs), quiet sleep (QS, 76 total epochs) and indeterminate sleep (IS, 93 total epochs). The dynamic properties of the EEG were assessed by means of the nonlinear cross prediction test which uses 3 different 'model' time series in order to predict nonlinearly the original data set (Pred, Ama, and Tir). Pred is a measure of the predictability of the time series, and Ama and Tir are measures of asymmetry, indicating nonlinear structure.
Our results show that the structure of sleep EEG in newborns is significantly different from that of adults, it cannot be distinguished from that of high-dimensional noise in the majority of epochs, and shows a tendency to become nonlinear in nature, mostly during QS, in a small percentage of the epochs analyzed.
These findings can be interpreted as the effect of immature synaptic interconnections between neurons in the newborn brain.
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ABSTRACT: Electroencephalograph (EEG) analysis enables the neuronal behavior of a section of the brain to be examined. If the behavior is nonlinear then nonlinear tools can be used to glean information on brain behavior, and aid in the diagnosis of sleep abnormalities such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). In this paper the sleep EEGs of a set of normal and mild OSAS children are evaluated for nonlinear behaviour. We consider how the behaviour of the brain changes with sleep stage and between normal and OSAS children. Comment: 9 pages, 2 figures, 4 tables06/2005;
Article: Topography of EEG complexity in human neonates: effect of the postmenstrual age and the sleep state.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The topography of the EEG of human neonates is studied in terms of its power spectral density and its estimated complexity as a function of both the postmenstrual age (PMA) and the sleep state. The monopolar EEGs of three groups of seven neonates (preterm, term and older term) were recorded during active (AS) and quiet sleep (QS) from electrodes Fp1, Fp2, T3, T4, C3, C4, O1 and O2. The existence of changes between groups and sleep states in the power of delta, theta, alpha and beta bands and in the dimensional complexity of these electrodes was tested. Additionally, the nonlinearity of the EEG in each electrode and situation was analyzed. The results of the spectral measures show an increment of the power in the low frequency bands from AS to QS and with the PMA, which can be mainly traced on central and temporal electrodes. This change is shown as well by the dimensional complexity, which also presents the greatest differences in the central derivations. Moreover, the signals show evidence of nonlinearity in almost all the groups and situations, although a dynamic change from nonlinear to linear character is apparent in the central electrodes with increased PMA. As a result, it is concluded that nonlinear analysis methods provide a clear portrait of the integrated brain activity that complements the information of spectral analysis in the characterization of the brain development and the sleep states in neonates.Neuroscience Letters 03/2006; 394(2):152-7. · 2.11 Impact Factor
Article: Development of NREM sleep instability-continuity (cyclic alternating pattern) in healthy term infants aged 1 to 4 months.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To evaluate non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep instability, as measured by the cyclic alternating pattern (CAP), in the first months of life in a group of normal healthy infants, in order to obtain more information on the maturation of arousal mechanisms during NREM sleep and to set normative data of CAP parameters in this age range (from 1 to 4 months of life). Retrospective study. Sleep unit of an academic centre. Twenty-three healthy newborns and infants with a mean conceptional age (gestational age plus postnatal age) of 47.6 + 3.8 weeks, age range 42 to 55 weeks, 10 boys (43.47%), were studied while they slept in the morning between feedings, by means of a 3-hour video-electroencephalographic (EEG)-polygraphic recording. Sleep was visually scored for sleep architecture and CAP in a blinded fashion, using standard criteria. We found 3 different sleep EEG patterns in our infants, according to their age, and we subdivided the entire group into 3 subgroups. Group 1-Tracé alternant mixed with high-voltage slow activity included 9 subjects (3 boys), with a mean conceptional age of 43.9 +/- 1.3 weeks; Group 2 (high-voltage slow activity and rudimentary spindles) included 6 subjects (4 boys), with a mean conceptional age of 49.4 +/- 3.1 weeks; and Group 3 (slow-wave activity and spindles, scored as NREM sleep) included 8 subjects (3 boys), with a mean conceptional age of 50.4 +/- 2.9 weeks. CAP rate was 6.83 +/- 3.58 in infants belonging to Group 2 and increased to 12.91 +/- 2.21 in Group 3. We found a statistically significant higher A1 index in only Group 3. The relative percentages of the A1, A2, and A3 subtypes showed non significant changes with age. The duration of CAP events and the cortical and subcortical arousal indexes were not statistically different between Groups 2 and 3. With this study, we provide the first data on CAP analysis in infants from 1 to 4 months of life, and we found that there is a transitory period when trace alternant disappears and CAP events begin to occur. Furthermore, we suggest that the more appropriate time of life when CAP analysis can be first performed is related to the appearance of mature stage 2 NREM with spindles and slow delta waves mixed with theta waves, at approximately 3 months of life.Sleep 02/2009; 32(1):83-90. · 5.05 Impact Factor