Characteristics of Persons With Heterosexually Acquired HIV Infection, United States 1999–2004

Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, and the Epidemic Intelligence Service, Epidemiology Program Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Ga 30333, USA.
American Journal of Public Health (Impact Factor: 4.55). 02/2007; 97(1):144-9. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2005.077461
Source: PubMed


In the United States a growing proportion of cases of heterosexually acquired HIV infections occur in women and in persons of color. We analyzed the association between race/ethnicity, whether diagnoses of HIV infection and AIDS were made concurrently, and the survival after diagnosis of heterosexually acquired AIDS.
We used data from 29 states that report confidential name-based HIV/AIDS cases to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to calculate estimated annual percentage change in the number of actual diagnoses and analyzed the association between race/ethnicity and concurrent diagnoses of HIV and AIDS. We adjusted for reporting delays and absence of information about HIV risk factors.
During 1999 to 2004, diagnoses of heterosexually acquired HIV were made for 52 569 persons in 29 states; 33 554 (64%) were women. Among men and women, 38 470 (73%) were non-Hispanic Black; 7761 (15%), non-Hispanic White; and 5383 (10%), Hispanic. The number of persons with heterosexually acquired HIV significantly increased: 6.1% among Hispanic men (95% confidence interval=2.7, 9.7) and 4.5% among Hispanic women (95% confidence interval=1.8, 7.3). The number significantly decreased (-2.9%) among non-Hispanic Black men. Concurrent HIV and AIDS diagnoses were slightly more common for non-Hispanic Whites (23%) and Hispanics (23%) than for non-Hispanic Blacks (20%).
To decrease the incidence of heterosexually acquired HIV infections, prevention and education programs should target all persons at risk, especially women, non-Hispanic Blacks, and Hispanics.

Download full-text


Available from: Lisa M Lee, Sep 01, 2014
17 Reads
  • Source
    • "overlapping) partners [19], behavioral bisexuality [20], and injection drug use. While some literature suggests that women may be either unaware of or incorrectly perceive their partners’ specific risk factors for HIV infection [2, 7, 8, 21], little is known about the extent to which women are aware of their partners’ risk factors, the effect of women’s perceptions of partner risk factors on condom use, or the moderating effects of contextual factors on the relationship between perceptions of partner risk and condom use (or the reverse—the moderating effects of perceived partner risk on the relationship between contextual factors and condom use). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We examined the effect of women's perceptions of sexual partner risks on condom use. Women from three US cities (n = 1,967) were recruited to provide data on HIV risks. In univariate models, increased odds of condom use were associated with perceiving that partners had concurrent partners and being unaware of partners': (a) HIV status, (b) bisexuality, (c) concurrency; and/or (d) injection drug use. In multivariate models, neither being unaware of the four partner risk factors nor perceiving a partner as being high risk was associated with condom use. Contextual factors associated with decreased odds of condom use were having sex with a main partner, homelessness in the past year, alcohol use during sex, and crack use in the past 30 days. Awareness of a partner's risks may not be sufficient for increasing condom use. Contextual factors, sex with a main partner in particular, decrease condom use despite awareness of partner risk factors.
    AIDS and Behavior 10/2010; 15(7):1347-58. DOI:10.1007/s10461-010-9840-7 · 3.49 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Persons with heterosexually acquired HIV were at increased risk of death. This finding is consistent with some [33,38] but not all [32,39] studies of AIDS survival. Previous studies of persons with HIV/AIDS in San Francisco and nationally have documented that compared with MSM, heterosexuals are more likely to be diagnosed with HIV within 12 months of AIDS suggesting that they are diagnosed with HIV later in the course of their disease, a factor associated with worse survival [38,40]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Homeless persons with HIV/AIDS have greater morbidity and mortality, more hospitalizations, less use of antiretroviral therapy, and worse medication adherence than HIV-infected persons who are stably housed. We examined the effect of homelessness on the mortality of persons with AIDS and measured the effect of supportive housing on AIDS survival. The San Francisco AIDS registry was used to identify homeless and housed persons who were diagnosed with AIDS between 1996 and 2006. The registry was computer-matched with a housing database of homeless persons who received housing after their AIDS diagnosis. The Kaplan-Meier product limit method was used to compare survival between persons who were homeless at AIDS diagnosis and those who were housed. Proportional hazards models were used to estimate the independent effects of homelessness and supportive housing on survival after AIDS diagnosis. Of the 6,558 AIDS cases, 9.8% were homeless at diagnosis. Sixty-seven percent of the persons who were homeless survived five years compared with 81% of those who were housed (p < 0.0001). Homelessness increased the risk of death (adjusted relative hazard [RH] 1.20; 95% confidence limits [CL] 1.03, 1.41). Homeless persons with AIDS who obtained supportive housing had a lower risk of death than those who did not (adjusted RH 0.20; 95% CL 0.05, 0.81). Supportive housing ameliorates the negative effect of homelessness on survival with AIDS.
    BMC Public Health 08/2009; 9(1):220. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-9-220 · 2.26 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "HIV seroprevalence in the aged 20–29 years was lower than those in older individuals. This is similar to the seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) [20] but differs from HIV seroprevalence in the U.S., Russia, and the many European countries [21-23]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In Korea, the cumulative number of HIV-infected individuals was smaller than those of other countries. Mandatory HIV tests, dominating method until 1990's, have been gradually changed to voluntary HIV tests. We investigated HIV seroprevalence status and its characteristics of visitors to Public Health Centers (PHCs), which conducted both mandatory test and voluntary test under the national HIV/STI surveillance program. We used HIV-testing data from 246 PHCs in 2005 through the Health Care Information System. The number of test taker was calculated using the code distinguished by the residential identification number. The subjects were classified into four groups by reason for testing; General group, HIV infection suspected group (HIV ISG), HIV test recommended group (HIV TRG), and sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk group. People living with HIV/AIDS were 149 (124 male and 25 female) among 280,456 individuals tested at PHCs. HIV seroprevalence was 5.3 per 10,000 individuals. Overall, the male revealed significantly higher seroprevalence than the female (adjusted Odds Ratio (adj. OR): 6.2; CI 3.8-10.2). Individuals aged 30-39 years (adj. OR: 2.6; CI 1.7-4.0), and 40-49 years (adj. OR: 3.8; CI 2.4-6.0) had higher seroprevalence than 20-29 years. Seroprevalence of HIV ISG (voluntary test takers and cases referred by doctors) was significantly higher than those of others. Foreigners showed higher seroprevalence than native Koreans (adj. OR: 3.8; CI 2.2-6.4). HIV ISG (adj. OR: 4.9; CI 3.2-7.5), and HIV TRG (adj. OR: 2.6; CI 1.3-5.4) had higher seroprevalence than General group. A question on the efficiency of current mandatory test is raised because the seroprevalence of mandatory test takers was low. However, HIV ISG included voluntary test takers was high in our result. Therefore, we suggest that Korea needs to develop a method encouraging more people to take voluntary tests at PHCs, also to expand the anonymous testing centers and Voluntary Counselling and Testing Program (VCT) for general population to easily access to HIV testing.
    BMC Public Health 06/2009; 9(1):123. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-9-123 · 2.26 Impact Factor
Show more