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Longitudinal and secular trends in physical activity and sedentary behavior during adolescence

Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, 1300 S 2nd St, WBOB Suite 300, Minneapolis, MN 55454-1015, USA.
PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.3). 01/2007; 118(6):e1627-34. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2006-0926
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT There is little epidemiologic research on longitudinal and secular trends in weight-related health behaviors throughout the stages of adolescence. In particular, few data are available to assess secular trends in various sedentary behaviors. The objective of this research was to investigate longitudinal and secular trends in physical activity and sedentary behavior in a large, diverse cohort of adolescents.
Project EAT-II is a 5-year longitudinal study (N = 2516) that includes 2 cohorts that allow for the observation of longitudinal changes from early to midadolescence (junior high to high school; n = 806; mean baseline age: 12.8 +/- 0.8 years) and mid- to late adolescence (high school to post-high school; n = 1710; mean baseline age: 15.8 +/- 0.8 years). EAT-II also examined secular trends in health behavior from 1999 to 2004 in midadolescence. The main outcome measures of the mixed-model regression analyses used in this research were self-reported weekly hours of moderate to vigorous physical activity, television/video viewing, and leisure-time computer use.
Our findings indicate substantial longitudinal changes in moderate to vigorous physical activity, particularly among girls (decreasing 5.9-4.9 hours/week from early to midadolescence and 5.1-3.5 hours/week from mid- to late adolescence), and leisure-time computer use, particularly among boys (increasing 11.4-15.2 hours/week from early to midadolescence and 10.4-14.2 hours/week from mid- to late adolescence). Secular trends further indicate dramatic increases in midadolescent computer use from 1999 to 2004; girls increased from 8.8 to 11.1 hours/week, and boys increased from 10.4 to 15.2 hours/week.
These adolescents experienced unfavorable shifts in activity patterns, such as longitudinal decreases in moderate to vigorous physical activity, coupled with longitudinal and secular increases in leisure-time computer use. Developing effective health promotion strategies that address a wide array of changing behavioral patterns will be important in promoting long-term health and active lifestyles among adolescents and young adults.

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    • "Although both sedentary behaviour and low physical activity may be factors linking obesity and low physical fitness ( Fogelholm et al . , 2008 ; Nelson , Neumark - Stzainer , Hannan , Sirard , & Story , 2006 ) , obesity or high level of BMI by itself could impair physical performance in activities involving moving the body weight ( Malina , 1995 ; Ortega , Ruiz , & Sjöström , 2007 ) . Previous studies have suggested that the leisure - time physical activity has at least not decreased among Finnish young people during last decades ( years 1979 – 2005 ) and girls , especially , have become more active ( Nupponen et al . "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract We investigated changes in cardiorespiratory performance, BMI and leisure-time physical activity among Finnish adolescents from 2003 to 2010. In addition, we compared cardiorespiratory performance levels between normal weight and overweight adolescents, grouped according to their physical activity. Participants were a national representative samples of 15-16-year-old adolescents in their final (ninth) year of comprehensive school in 2003 (n = 2258) and in 2010 (n = 1301). They performed an endurance shuttle run test and reported their height and weight and leisure time physical activity on a questionnaire. Results showed no significant secular changes in cardiorespiratory performance from 2003 to 2010. The mean BMI increased in boys. Leisure-time physical activity increased among normal weight girls. Adolescents of normal weight had better cardiorespiratory performance than those classified as overweight at both assessment points. BMI-adjusted physical activity was a significant determinant for cardiorespiratory performance among overweight adolescents, and very active overweight adolescents had similar cardiorespiratory performance levels as moderately active adolescents of normal weight. The results of the present study support the idea that the physical activity has the great importance for the cardiorespiratory performance in adolescents. Overweight adolescents, in particular, benefit from higher levels of physical activity.
    Journal of Sports Sciences 10/2014; 33(6):1-9. DOI:10.1080/02640414.2014.951874 · 2.10 Impact Factor
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    • "However, the direct relationship between screen use and physical activity is generally weak-to-moderate (Gebremariam et al., 2013; Iannotti et al., 2009; Marshall et al., 2006). Given the expansion in screen-based gadgets offered to children and youth, such as smart phones, tablets, laptops, and portable gaming devises (Rideout et al., 2003), there appears to be an increase in total media use and exposure (Nelson et al., 2006; Roberts and Foehr, 2008). Roberts and Foehr (2008) reported that children and youth aged 8–18 years in the United States spent on average around 3 h watching TV, 1 h on videos and movies, 50 min playing video games, and approximately 1 h on other computer uses, each day. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. Screen-based media use by children and adolescents has increased in recent years but the consequences of their use are not well understood. The objective of this study was to provide a comprehensive examination of the relationship between screen-based activities and a selection of single and multiple self-reported somatic symptoms in a large sample of 10-12 year old children. Method. We use data from the population-based 2011 Youth in Iceland school survey (N = 10,829, response rate: 84.5%, boys: 49.9%) that is conducted triennially in 5th-7th grades in all secondary schools in Iceland. Self-reported measures of common screen-based activities were hypothesized to predict the odds of dizziness, tremors, headaches, stomach aches, and multiple symptoms. Results. In general the reported prevalence of symptoms increased with greater number of hours reported on screen based activity for boys and girls. This held for all individual screen activities as well as the cumulative measure of daily minutes spent on screen-based media and prevalence of one or more somatic symptoms. Conclusions. This study confirms previous findings and puts forth additional information concerning the relationship between the prevalence of electronic screen use and somatic symptoms in 10-12 year old children.
    Preventive Medicine 07/2014; 67. DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.07.017 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    • "In other countries, computer use has increased (Edwards and Magel 2007; Nelson et al. 2006). Although TV watching has increased in some studies (Mak and Day 2010), it was stable in others (Edwards and Magel 2007; Nelson et al. 2006) or even decreased (Li et al. 2009; Lowry et al. 2009), as observed in this survey. Between 1986 and 1998, the proportion of TV viewing C4 h/day declined in Norway, Scotland and Wales, increased in Austria and Finland among girls, and increased in Hungary in both genders (Samdal et al. 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To compare the prevalence of television (TV) watching and of computer/videogame use among high school students (15-19 years) from Southern Brazil between 2001 and 2011 and to identify associated socio-demographic factors. METHODS: Panel studies were conducted with high school students in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, in 2001 (n = 5,028) and 2011 (n = 6,529). TV watching and computer/videogame use were collected using questionnaires. RESULTS: Prevalence of ≥2 h/day of TV watching dropped from 76.8 to 61.5 % and ≥2 h/day of computer/videogame use increased from 37.9 to 60.6 %. In both surveys, those aged 15-16 and those who did not work had higher likelihoods of being exposed to ≥2 h/day of TV watching. Boys, those with higher family income, and those who were living in urban areas had higher likelihoods of ≥2 h/day of computer/videogame use. Older age, studying at night and not working were protective factors to these behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: After a decade, there was a decrease in the prevalence of TV viewing and an increase in computer/videogame use. Socio-demographic factors were differently associated with these behaviors.
    International Journal of Public Health 02/2014; 59(1):77-86. DOI:10.1007/s00038-013-0464-3 · 2.70 Impact Factor
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