Inherited surfactant protein-B deficiency and surfactant protein-C associated disease: clinical features and evaluation.
ABSTRACT The pulmonary surfactant is a mixture of phospholipids and proteins synthesized, packaged, and secreted by alveolar type II cells that lowers surface tension and prevents atelectasis at end-expiration. A tightly regulated, complex metabolic cycle involves all components of the pulmonary surfactant. Disorders of surfactant metabolism that have a genetic basis are rare, but causes of respiratory dysfunction in infants and children emerge. Recessive loss of function mutations in surfactant protein-B (SP-B) gene lead to respiratory failure that is lethal in the newborn period while single allelic mutations in the surfactant protein-C (SP-C) gene cause interstitial lung disease of varying severity and age of onset. The genetic basis, mechanisms, clinical presentation and outcome, diagnostic approach and limited therapeutic options for disease due to mutations the SP-B and SP-C genes will be described in detail in this article. These disorders provide insights into some of the distinct mechanisms that disrupt the surfactant metabolic cycle and cause respiratory disease in infants and children.
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ABSTRACT: NKX2-1 (NK2 homeobox 1) is a critical regulator of transcription for the surfactant protein (SP)-B and -C genes (SFTPB and SFTPC, respectively). We identified and functionally characterized two new de novo NKX2-1 mutations c.493C>T (p.R165W) and c.786_787del2 (p.L263fs) in infants with closely similar severe interstitial lung disease (ILD), hypotonia, and congenital hypothyroidism. Functional analyses using A549 and HeLa cells revealed that NKX2-1-p.L263fs induced neither SFTPB nor SFTPC promoter activation and had a dominant negative effect on wild-type (WT) NKX2-1. In contrast,NKX2-1-p.R165W activated SFTPC, to a significantly greater extent than did WTNKX2-1, while SFTPB activation was only significantly reduced in HeLa cells. In accordance with our in vitro data, we found decreased amounts of SP-B and SP-C by western blot in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (patient with p.L263fs) and features of altered surfactant protein metabolism on lung histology (patient with NKX2-1-p.R165W). In conclusion, ILD in patients with NKX2-1 mutations was associated with altered surfactant protein metabolism, and both gain and loss of function of the mutated NKX2-1 genes on surfactant protein promoters were associated with ILD in "Brain-Lung-Thyroid syndrome".Human Mutation 02/2010; 31(2):E1146-62. DOI:10.1002/humu.21183 · 5.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) in children constitute a heterogeneous group of rare diseases that have been described and classified according to experiences and research in adults. However, pediatric pulmonologists have observed that the clinical spectrum is broader in children than in adults, and that many of these disorders have different courses and treatment responses. In addition, probably due to the various stages of lung development and maturation, new clinical forms have been described, particularly in infants. This has broadened the classification of ILDs in this age bracket. The understanding that neither the usual definition nor the standard classification of these disorders entirely apply to children has prompted multicenter studies designed to increase knowledge of these disorders, as well as to standardize diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. We have reviewed the conceptualization of ILDs in children, taking into consideration the particularities of this group of patients when using the criteria for the classification of these diseases in adults. We have also made a historical review of several multicenter studies in order to further understanding of the problem. We have emphasized the differences in the clinical presentation, in an attempt to highlight knowledge of newly described entities in young children. We underscore the need to standardize management of laboratory and radiological routines, as well as of lung biopsy processing, taking such knowledge into account. It is important to bear in mind that, among the recently described disorders, genetic surfactant dysfunction, which is often classified as an idiopathic disease in adults, should be included in the differential diagnosis of ILDs.
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ABSTRACT: Inherited disorders of pulmonary surfactant-associated proteins are rare but provide important insights into unique mechanisms of surfactant dysfunction. Recessive loss-of-function mutations in the surfactant protein-B and the ATP-binding cassette family member A3 (ABCA3) genes present as lethal surfactant deficiency in the newborn, whereas other recessive mutations in ABCA3 and dominant mutations in the surfactant protein-C gene result in interstitial lung disease in older infants and children. The molecular basis and the genetic and tissue-based approaches to the evaluation of children suspected of having one of these disorders are discussed.Neonatology 02/2007; 91(4):311-7. DOI:10.1159/000101347 · 2.37 Impact Factor