Enhanced long-term synaptic depression in an animal model of depression.
ABSTRACT A growing body of evidence suggests a disturbance of brain plasticity in major depression. In contrast to hippocampal neurogenesis, much less is known about the role of synaptic plasticity. Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) regulate the strength of synaptic transmission and the formation of new synapses in many neural networks. Therefore, we examined the modulation of synaptic plasticity in the chronic mild stress animal model of depression.
Adult rats were exposed to mild and unpredictable stressors for 3 weeks. Thereafter, long-term synaptic plasticity was examined in the hippocampal CA1 region by whole-cell patch clamp measurements in brain slices. Neurogenesis was assessed by doublecortin immunostaining.
Exposure to chronic mild stress facilitated LTD and had no effect on LTP. Chronic application of the antidepressant fluvoxamine during the stress protocol prevented the facilitation of LTD and increased the extent of LTP induction. Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus was impaired after chronic stress.
In addition to neurogenesis, long-term synaptic plasticity is an important and ubiquitous form of brain plasticity that is disturbed in an animal model of depression. Facilitated depression of synaptic transmission might impair function and structure of brain circuits involved in the pathophysiology of major depression. Antidepressants might counteract these alterations.
SourceAvailable from: Izhak Michaelevski[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Memory deficit is a common manifestation of age-related cognitive impairment, of which depression is a frequently occurring comorbidity. Previously, we developed a submissive (Sub) mouse line, validated as a model of depressive-like behavior. Using learning paradigms testing hippocampus-dependent spatial and nonspatial memory, we demonstrate here that Sub mice developed cognitive impairments at earlier age (3 months), compared with wild-type mice. Furthermore, acute hippocampal slices from Sub animals failed to display paired-pulse facilitation, whereas primed burst stimulation elicited significantly enhanced long-term potentiation in region CA1, relative to control mice. Changes in synaptic plasticity were accompanied by markedly reduced hippocampal messenger RNA expression of insulin-like growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Finally, we identified markedly elevated protein levels of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit GluA1 in the hippocampi of Sub mice, which was exacerbated with age. Taken together, the results point to a linkage between depressive-like behavior and the susceptibility to develop age-related cognitive impairment, potentially by hippocampal α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor-mediated glutamatergic signaling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Neurobiology of Aging 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2015.02.015 · 4.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Two main questions are important for understanding and treating affective disorders: why are certain individuals susceptible or resilient to stress, and what are the features of treatment response and resistance? To address these questions, we used a chronic mild stress (CMS) rat model of depression. When exposed to stress, a fraction of rats develops anhedonic-like behavior, a core symptom of major depression, while another subgroup of rats is resilient to CMS. Furthermore, the anhedonic-like state is reversed in about half the animals in response to chronic escitalopram treatment (responders), while the remaining animals are resistant (non-responder animals). Electrophysiology in hippocampal brain slices was used to identify a synaptic hallmark characterizing these groups of animals. Presynaptic properties were investigated at GABAergic synapses onto single dentate gyrus granule cells. Stress-susceptible rats displayed a reduced probability of GABA release judged by an altered paired-pulse ratio of evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) (1.48 ± 0.25) compared with control (0.81 ± 0.05) and stress-resilient rats (0.78 ± 0.03). Spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs) occurred less frequently in stress-susceptible rats compared with control and resilient rats. Finally, a subset of stress-susceptible rats responding to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment showed a normalization of the paired-pulse ratio (0.73 ± 0.06) whereas non-responder rats showed no normalization (1.2 ± 0.2). No changes in the number of parvalbumin-positive interneurons were observed. Thus, we provide evidence for a distinct GABAergic synaptopathy which associates closely with stress-susceptibility and treatment-resistance in an animal model of depression.PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0119993. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119993 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ischemic stroke results in diverse pathophysiologies, including cerebral inflammation, neuronal loss, cognitive dysfunction, and depression. Studies aimed at identifying therapeutic solutions to alleviate these outcomes are important due to the increase in the number of stroke patients annually. Recently, many studies have reported that orexin, commonly known as a neuropeptide regulator of sleep/wakefulness and appetite, is associated with neuronal cell apoptosis, memory function, and depressive symptoms. Here, we briefly summarize recent studies regarding the role and future perspectives of orexin in post-ischemic stroke. This review advances our understanding of the role of orexin in post-stroke pathologies, focusing on its possible function as a therapeutic regulator in the post-ischemic brain. Ultimately, we suggest the clinical potential of orexin to regulate post-stroke pathologies.Molecular Brain 03/2015; 8. DOI:10.1186/s13041-015-0106-1 · 4.35 Impact Factor