Tumor necrosis factor α-induced skeletal muscle insulin resistance involves suppression of AMP-kinase signaling
ABSTRACT Elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNFalpha) are implicated in the development of insulin resistance, but the mechanisms mediating these chronic effects are not completely understood. We demonstrate that TNFalpha signaling through TNF receptor (TNFR) 1 suppresses AMPK activity via transcriptional upregulation of protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C). This in turn reduces ACC phosphorylation, suppressing fatty-acid oxidation, increasing intramuscular diacylglycerol accumulation, and causing insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, effects observed both in vitro and in vivo. Importantly even at pathologically elevated levels of TNFalpha observed in obesity, the suppressive effects of TNFalpha on AMPK signaling are reversed in mice null for both TNFR1 and 2 or following treatment with a TNFalpha neutralizing antibody. Our data demonstrate that AMPK is an important TNFalpha signaling target and is a contributing factor to the suppression of fatty-acid oxidation and the development of lipid-induced insulin resistance in obesity.
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ABSTRACT: Inflammation is critical for the development of obesity-associated metabolic disorders. This study aims to investigate the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 2 (MKP-2) in inflammation during macrophage-adipocyte interaction. White adipose tissues (WAT) from mice either on a high-fat diet (HFD) or normal chow (NC) were isolated to examine the expression of MKP-2. Murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7 stably expressing MKP-2 was used to study the regulation of MKP-2 in macrophages in response to saturated free fatty acid (FFA) and its role in macrophage M1/M2 activation. Macrophage-adipocyte co-culture system was employed to investigate the role of MKP-2 in regulating inflammation during adipocyte-macrophage interaction. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)- and p38-specific inhibitors were used to examine the mechanisms by which MKP-2 regulates macrophage activation and macrophage-adipocytes interaction. HFD changed the expression of MKP-2 in WAT, and MKP-2 was highly expressed in the stromal vascular cells (SVCs). MKP-2 inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines in response to FFA stimulation in macrophages. MKP-2 inhibited macrophage M1 activation through JNK and p38. In addition, overexpression of MKP-2 in macrophages suppressed inflammation during macrophage-adipocyte interaction. MKP-2 is a negative regulator of macrophage M1 activation through JNK and p38 and inhibits inflammation during macrophage-adipocyte interaction.PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(3):e0120755. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0120755 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with peripheral metabolic disorders. Clinical/epidemiological data indicate increased risk of diabetes in AD patients. Here, we show that intracerebroventricular infusion of AD-associated Aβ oligomers (AβOs) in mice triggered peripheral glucose intolerance, a phenomenon further verified in two transgenic mouse models of AD. Systemically injected AβOs failed to induce glucose intolerance, suggesting AβOs target brain regions involved in peripheral metabolic control. Accordingly, we show that AβOs affected hypothalamic neurons in culture, inducing eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α phosphorylation (eIF2α-P). AβOs further induced eIF2α-P and activated pro-inflammatory IKKβ/NF-κB signaling in the hypothalamus of mice and macaques. AβOs failed to trigger peripheral glucose intolerance in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) receptor 1 knockout mice. Pharmacological inhibition of brain inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress prevented glucose intolerance in mice, indicating that AβOs act via a central route to affect peripheral glucose homeostasis. While the hypothalamus has been largely ignored in the AD field, our findings indicate that AβOs affect this brain region and reveal novel shared molecular mechanisms between hypothalamic dysfunction in metabolic disorders and AD.EMBO Molecular Medicine 01/2015; 7(2). DOI:10.15252/emmm.201404183 · 8.25 Impact Factor
Frontiers in Bioscience 01/2009; Volume(14):1902. DOI:10.2741/3350 · 4.25 Impact Factor