Tumor necrosis factor α-induced skeletal muscle insulin resistance involves suppression of AMP-kinase signaling
ABSTRACT Elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNFalpha) are implicated in the development of insulin resistance, but the mechanisms mediating these chronic effects are not completely understood. We demonstrate that TNFalpha signaling through TNF receptor (TNFR) 1 suppresses AMPK activity via transcriptional upregulation of protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C). This in turn reduces ACC phosphorylation, suppressing fatty-acid oxidation, increasing intramuscular diacylglycerol accumulation, and causing insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, effects observed both in vitro and in vivo. Importantly even at pathologically elevated levels of TNFalpha observed in obesity, the suppressive effects of TNFalpha on AMPK signaling are reversed in mice null for both TNFR1 and 2 or following treatment with a TNFalpha neutralizing antibody. Our data demonstrate that AMPK is an important TNFalpha signaling target and is a contributing factor to the suppression of fatty-acid oxidation and the development of lipid-induced insulin resistance in obesity.
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with peripheral metabolic disorders. Clinical/epidemiological data indicate increased risk of diabetes in AD patients. Here, we show that intracerebroventricular infusion of AD-associated Aβ oligomers (AβOs) in mice triggered peripheral glucose intolerance, a phenomenon further verified in two transgenic mouse models of AD. Systemically injected AβOs failed to induce glucose intolerance, suggesting AβOs target brain regions involved in peripheral metabolic control. Accordingly, we show that AβOs affected hypothalamic neurons in culture, inducing eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α phosphorylation (eIF2α-P). AβOs further induced eIF2α-P and activated pro-inflammatory IKKβ/NF-κB signaling in the hypothalamus of mice and macaques. AβOs failed to trigger peripheral glucose intolerance in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) receptor 1 knockout mice. Pharmacological inhibition of brain inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress prevented glucose intolerance in mice, indicating that AβOs act via a central route to affect peripheral glucose homeostasis. While the hypothalamus has been largely ignored in the AD field, our findings indicate that AβOs affect this brain region and reveal novel shared molecular mechanisms between hypothalamic dysfunction in metabolic disorders and AD.EMBO Molecular Medicine 01/2015; 7(2). DOI:10.15252/emmm.201404183 · 8.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle is responsible for the majority of glucose disposal in body. Impairment in skeletal muscle glucose handling capacity leads to the state of insulin resistance. The TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) cytokine has now emerged as a major regulator of skeletal muscle mass and function. However, the role of TWEAK in skeletal muscle metabolic function remains less understood. Here, we demonstrate that with progressive age, skeletal muscle-specific TWEAK-transgenic (TWEAK-Tg) mice gain increased body weight (∼16%) and fat mass (∼64%) and show glucose intolerance and insulin insensitivity. TWEAK-Tg mice also exhibit adipocyte hypertrophy in the epididymal fat. Oxygen uptake, voluntary physical activity, and exercise capacity were significantly reduced in TWEAK-Tg mice compared with controls. Overexpression of TWEAK inhibited (∼31%) 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and reduced (∼31%) the levels of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) without affecting the Akt pathway. TWEAK also inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (∼32%) and repressed the levels of GLUT4 (∼50%) in cultured myotubes from C57BL6 mice. TWEAK represses the levels of Krüppel-like factor 15; myocyte enhancer factor 2, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, which are required for the activation of the GLUT4 locus. Collectively our study demonstrates that elevated levels of TWEAK in skeletal muscle cause metabolic abnormalities. Inhibition of TWEAK could be a potential approach to prevent weight gain and type 2 diabetes.-Sato, S., Ogura, Y., Tajrishi, M. M., Kumar, A. Elevated levels ofTWEAKin skeletalmuscle promote visceral obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic dysfunction. © FASEB.The FASEB Journal 12/2014; DOI:10.1096/fj.14-260703 · 5.48 Impact Factor
Frontiers in Bioscience 01/2009; Volume(14):1902. DOI:10.2741/3350 · 4.25 Impact Factor