A randomized, controlled trial for risk factor reduction in patients with symptomatic vascular disease: the multidisciplinary Vascular Prevention by Nurses Study (VENUS).
ABSTRACT Patients with manifest vascular disease are at high risk of a new vascular event or death. Modification of classical risk factors is often not successful. We determined whether the extra care of a nurse practitioner could be beneficial to the cardiovascular risk profile of high-risk patients.
We conducted a randomized, controlled trial based on the Zelen design.
Two hundred and thirty-six patients with manifestations of a vascular disease and who had two or more modifiable vascular risk factors were pre-randomized to receive treatment by a nurse practitioner plus usual care or usual care alone. After 1 year, risk factors were remeasured. The primary endpoint was achievement of treatment goals for blood pressure, lipid, glucose and homocysteine levels, body mass index, and smoking.
Of the pre-randomized patients, 95 of 119 (80%) in the intervention group and 80 of 117 (68%) in the control group participated in the study. After a mean follow-up of 14 months, the patients in the intervention group achieved significantly more treatment goals than did the patients in the control group (systolic blood pressure 63 versus 37%, total cholesterol 79 versus 61%, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol 88 versus 67%, and body mass index 38 versus 24%). Medication use was increased in both groups and no differences were found in patients' quality of life (SF-36) at follow-up.
Treatment delivered by nurse practitioners, in addition to a vascular risk factor screening and prevention program, resulted in a better management of vascular risk factors than usual care alone in vascular patients after 1-year follow-up.
- SourceAvailable from: ncbi.nlm.nih.govBMJ 02/1999; 318(7177):182-5. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effectiveness of a nurse led shared care programme to improve coronary heart disease risk factor levels and general health status and to reduce anxiety and depression in patients awaiting coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Randomised controlled trial. Community, January 1997 to March 1998. STUDY GROUPS: 98 (75 male) consecutive patients were recruited to the study within one month of joining the waiting list for elective CABG at Glasgow Royal Infirmary University NHS Trust. Patients were randomly assigned to usual care (control; n = 49) or a nurse led intervention programme (n = 49). A shared care programme consisting of health education and motivational interviews, according to individual need, was carried out monthly. Care was provided in the patients' own homes by the community based cardiac liaison nurse alternating with the general practice nurse at the practice clinic. Smoking status, obesity, physical activity, anxiety and depression, general health status, and proportion of patients exceeding target values for blood pressure, plasma cholesterol, and alcohol intake. Compared with patients who received usual care, those participating in the nurse led programme were more likely to stop smoking (25% v 2%, p = 0.001) and to reduce obesity (body mass index > 30 kg/m(2)) (16.3% v 8.1%, p = 0.01). Target systolic blood pressure improved by 19.8% compared with a 10.7% decrease in the control group (p = 0.001) and target diastolic blood pressure improved by 21.5% compared with 10.2% in the control group (p = 0.000). However, there was no significant difference between groups in the proportion of patients with cholesterol concentrations exceeding target values. There was a significant improvement in general health status scores across all eight domains of the 36 item short form health survey with changes in difference in mean scores between the groups ranging from 8.1 (p = 0.005) to 36.1 (p < 0.000). Levels of anxiety and depression improved (p < 0.000) and there was improvement in time spent being physically active (p < 0.000). This nurse led shared care intervention was shown to be effective for improving care for patients on the waiting list for CABG.Heart (British Cardiac Society) 09/2001; 86(3):317-23. · 5.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recently, the Dutch Parliament agreed upon the conduct of a randomized clinical trial on the effects on heroin provision on general health and psychosocial and criminal behavior in long-term addicts. Previous studies failed to establish the effects beyond reasonable doubt. The main reasons why previous trials failed are massive dropout or noncompliance in the control group. Designing a new heroin-provision trial, we concluded that the Zelen design provides the best guarantee for obtaining valid study results. Compared with the traditional design, the Zelen design probably reduces noncompliance and dropout considerably, thus increasing validity. Depending on the study population, the Zelen design may reduce study precision. However, in a trial aimed at badly integrated addicts, the Zelen design can be conducted without loss of precision because baseline measurements will only weakly correlate with effect measurements. The arguments favoring the Zelen design may be generalized to trials in which the experimental treatment is highly attractive to the study participants. However, the use of the Zelen design precludes blinding of participants who receive the experimental treatment. We argue that the conduct of studies that predictably tend to produce invalid results is ethically dubious. The ethical problem of studying participants without their consent can be solved by a slight modification of the Zelen design in which the sampling of a control group is postponed. Both the traditional and the Zelen design can imply ethical problems. Both designs can be ethically justifiable and should not be rejected on a priori grounds.Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 07/1999; 52(6):503-7. · 5.33 Impact Factor