Rapamycin promotes expansion of functional CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells of both healthy subjects and type 1 diabetic patients.
ABSTRACT CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) are pivotal for the induction and maintenance of peripheral tolerance in both mice and humans. Rapamycin has been shown to promote tolerance in experimental models and to favor CD4+CD25+ Treg-dependent suppression. We recently reported that rapamycin allows in vitro expansion of murine CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Tregs, which preserve their suppressive function. In the current study, we show that activation of human CD4+ T cells from healthy subjects in the presence of rapamycin leads to growth of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Tregs and to selective depletion of CD4+CD25- T effector cells, which are highly sensitive to the antiproliferative effect of the compound. The rapamycin-expanded Tregs suppress proliferation of both syngeneic and allogeneic CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Interestingly, rapamycin promotes expansion of functional CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Tregs also in type 1 diabetic patients, in whom a defect in freshly isolated CD4+CD25+ Tregs has been reported. The capacity of rapamycin to allow growth of functional CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Tregs, but also to deplete T effector cells, can be exploited for the design of novel and safe in vitro protocols for cellular immunotherapy in T cell-mediated diseases.
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ABSTRACT: Background: Caerulomycin A (CaeA) is a known antifungal and antibiotic agent. Further, CaeA is reported to induce the expansion of regulatory T cell and prolongs the survival of skin allografts in mouse model of transplantation. In the current study, CaeA was purified and characterized from a novel species of actinomycetes, Actinoalloteichus spitiensis. The CaeA was identified for its novel immunosuppressive property by inhibiting in vitro and in vivo function of T cells. Methods: Isolation, purification and characterization of CaeA were performed using High Performance Flash Chromatography (HPFC), NMR and mass spectrometry techniques. In vitro and in vivo T cell studies were conducted in mice using flowcytometry, ELISA and thymidine-[methyl/H-3] incorporation. Results: CaeA significantly suppressed T cell activation and IFN-gamma secretion. Further, it inhibited the T cells function at G1 phase of cell cycle. No apoptosis was noticed by CaeA at a concentration responsible for inducing T cell retardation. Furthermore, the change in the function of B cells but not macrophages was observed. The CaeA as well exhibited substantial inhibitory activity in vivo. Conclusion: This study describes for the first time novel in vitro and in vivo immunosuppressive function of CaeA on T cells and B cells. CaeA has enough potential to act as a future immunosuppressive drug.PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e107051. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0107051 · 3.53 Impact Factor
Diabetes 12/2013; 63(1):377-377. DOI:10.2337/db14-er01 · 8.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: T cell fate decisions play an integral role in maintaining the health of organisms under homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. The localized microenvironment in which devel-oping and mature T cells reside provides signals that serve essential functions in shaping these fate decisions. These signals are derived from the immune compartment, including antigens, co-stimulation, and cytokines, and other factors, including growth factors and nutrients. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), a vital sensor of signals within the immune microenvironment, is a central regulator of T cell biology. In this review, we dis-cuss how various environmental cues tune mTOR activity in T cells, and summarize how mTOR integrates these signals to influence multiple aspects of T cell biology.Frontiers in Immunology 01/2015; 5(686). DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00686