Increased accumulation of superficial zone protein (SZP) in articular cartilage in response to bone morphogenetic protein-7 and growth factors
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), such as BMP-7, growth factors, and cytokines, in the accumulation of superficial zone protein (SZP) in bovine articular cartilage. Calf superficial articular cartilage discs and chondrocytes were obtained for explant and monolayer culture systems, respectively. Dose- and time-dependent actions of BMP-7 on SZP accumulation were investigated in both explant and monolayer culture systems. In addition, actions of various morphogens and growth factors [BMP-2, BMP-4, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta1)], and cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha)] alone, and in combination with BMP-7, on SZP accumulation were investigated in monolayer culture systems. SZP accumulation was quantified in both the cartilage and the medium using SDS-PAGE and subsequent immunoblotting. In both explant and monolayer cultures, BMP-7 increased SZP accumulation in a dose- and time-dependent fashion (p < 0.05). Furthermore, SZP accumulation was significantly increased in monolayer cultures by FGF-2, IGF-1, PDGF, and TGF-beta1 (p < 0.05). Both IL-1alpha and TNF-alpha significantly reduced SZP accumulation (p < 0.05). The inhibition of SZP accumulation by TNF-alpha was partially alleviated by concurrent treatment with BMP-7. The results of this investigation provide novel insights into the role of morphogens, especially BMP-7, growth factors, and cytokines in the accumulation of SZP in articular cartilage. This information has clinical implications because stimulation of SZP may ameliorate the pathology of joint function in arthritis. Furthermore, tissue engineering approaches to articular cartilage may depend on the optimal synthesis and assembly of SZP in the superficial zone to ensure functional tissue architecture.
SourceAvailable from: Tyler Novak[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Engineered tissue microenvironments impart specialized cues that drive distinct cellular phenotypes and function. Microenvironments with defined properties, such as mechanical properties and fibril alignment, can elicit specific cellular responses that emulate those observed in vivo. Collagen- and glycosaminoglycan(GAG)- based tissue matrix have been popularized due to their biological ubiquity in a broad range of tissues and the ability to tune structure and mechanical properties through a variety of processes. Here, we investigate the combined effects of static magnetic fields, and GAG and cell encapsulation, on the structure (e.g. collagen fibril orientation) and material properties of collagen matrices. We found that magnetic fields align the collagen-GAG matrix, alter equilibrium mechanical properties, and provide a method for encapsulating cells within a 3D aligned matrix. Cells are encapsulated prior to polymerization, allowing for controlled cell density and eliminating the need for cell seeding. Increased relative GAG concentrations reduced the ability to magnetically align collagen fibrils, in part through a mechanism involving increased viscosity and polymerization time of the collagan-GAG solution. This work provides a functional design space for the development of pure collagen and hybrid collagen-GAG matrices in the presence of magnetic fields. Additionally, this work shows that magnetic fields are effective for the fabrication of collagen constructs with controlled fibril orientation, and can be coupled with GAG incorporation to modulate mechanical properties and the response of embedded cells.Acta Biomaterialia 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.actbio.2014.09.031 · 5.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background Hyaluronic acid (HA) injection is widely used in the treatment of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis (OA). Proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) is another joint lubricant that protects surface of articular cartilage. But few studies had explored the role of HA in regulation of PRG4 expression in TMJ OA. In this study, the effects of HA on the expression of PRG4 in osteoarthritic TMJ synovial cells were investigated in hypoxia, which was similar to the TMJ physiologically.Methods Synovial cells were isolated from the TMJ OA patients and were treated with or without HA under normoxia or hypoxia for indicated time periods. The proliferation of synovial cells was measured using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8). The gene expression of HAS2, VEGF, and PRG4 was detected by quantitative real-time PCR, and the secretion of PRG4 and VEGF was assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunofluorescence was used to examine the protein expression of hypoxia-induced factor-1α (HIF-1α).ResultsHyaluronic acid markedly increased the proliferation of osteoarthritic synovial cells in hypoxia. The expression of HAS2 and PRG4 mRNA of osteoarthritic synovial cells under hypoxia was enhanced by HA treatment. However, HA had no effect on reducing the VEGF and HIF-1α expression in synovial cells in hypoxia.Conclusions Hyaluronic acid could promote the expression of HAS2 and PRG4, but could not modulate HIF-1α and VEGF expression of TMJ osteoarthritic synovial cells in hypoxia.Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine 11/2014; DOI:10.1111/jop.12273 · 1.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Articular cartilage is organized into multiple zones including superficial, middle and calcified zones with distinct cellular and extracellular components to impart lubrication, compressive strength, and rigidity for load transmission to bone, respectively. During native cartilage tissue development, changes in biochemical, mechanical, and cellular factors direct the formation of stratified structure of articular cartilage. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of combined gradients in cell density, matrix stiffness, and zone-specific growth factors on the zonal organization of articular cartilage. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were encapsulated in acrylate-functionalized lactide-chain-extended polyethylene glycol (SPELA) gels simulating cell density and stiffness of the superficial, middle and calcified zones. The cell-encapsulated gels were cultivated in a medium supplemented with growth factors specific to each zone and the expression of zone-specific markers was measured with incubation time. Encapsulation of 60 × 10(6) cells per mL hMSCs in a soft gel (80 kPa modulus) and cultivation with a combination of TGF-β1 (3 ng mL(-1)) and BMP-7 (100 ng mL(-1)) led to the expression of markers for the superficial zone. Conversely, encapsulation of 15 × 10(6) cells per mL hMSCs in a stiff gel (320 MPa modulus) and cultivation with a combination of TGF-β1 (30 ng mL(-1)) and hydroxyapatite (3%) led to the expression of markers for the calcified zone. Further, encapsulation of 20 × 10(6) cells per mL hMSCs in a gel with 2.1 MPa modulus and cultivation with a combination of TGF-β1 (30 ng mL(-1)) and IGF-1 (100 ng mL(-1)) led to up-regulation of the middle zone markers. Results demonstrate that a developmental approach with gradients in cell density, matrix stiffness, and zone-specific growth factors can potentially regenerate zonal structure of the articular cartilage.Integrative Biology 11/2014; 7(1). DOI:10.1039/C4IB00197D · 4.00 Impact Factor