Predicting immune reconstitution syndrome

Clinical Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 9.42). 02/2007; 44(1):147-8; author reply 148-9. DOI: 10.1086/509642
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: HIV and tuberculosis (TB) are leading global causes of mortality and morbidity. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is often initiated in patients being treated for TB. The immune recovery associated with HAART results in dramatic clinical benefits, but this restoration of immunity may result in immunopathological reactions. The immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome can result in fever, nodal enlargement, and worsening pulmonary infiltrates observed on a chest radiograph, with or without recurrent respiratory symptoms. Several other manifestations have also been described. As a consequence, the use of HAART might not be appropriate during the first weeks of anti-TB therapy in HIV-infected patients. In this review, we summarize the incidence, clinical presentations, and potential mechanisms of these conditions and we describe therapeutic methods.
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    ABSTRACT: An estimated 40 million people live with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) globally, and over four million people were newly diagnosed with HIV infection in 2006. Twenty-five million people have died as a result of HIV since its recognition in 1981. Where available, highly active antiretroviral therapy has resulted in significant decreases in HIV-associated morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, opportunistic infections and conditions continue to occur, and their recognition and management continue to be an important component of HIV care.
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a nested case-control study in a cohort of patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) to identify risk factors and common manifestations of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) and to validate the Robertson criteria for IRIS prediction. HIV-infected patients at the Tuberculosis Research Centre clinics, Chennai and Madurai, India, initiating ART between July 2004 and June 2005 were prospectively studied. Of 97 patients (62% men, median age 32 years, median CD4 count 63 cells/μL) included, 34 developed IRIS. IRIS was more common in patients with a prior history of tuberculosis (74% versus 52%, P = 0.04), median time to development was 46 days and the sensitivity and specificity of the Robertson criteria to predict IRIS were 91% and 22%, respectively. In this population, IRIS was a common event, more so among patients with prior tuberculosis, and neither the rate of CD4 increase nor the Robertson criteria were useful in predicting its development.
    International Journal of STD & AIDS 06/2012; 23(6):419-23. DOI:10.1258/ijsa.2009.009439 · 1.04 Impact Factor


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