Article

Viral load testing in resource-limited settings

Clinical Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 9.42). 02/2007; 44(1):139-40. DOI: 10.1086/510090
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Human Immune Virus (HIV) related oral lesions and their association with Cluster of Differentiation 4 (CD4+) count among treatment naive HIV positive patients. This was a descriptive and analytical cross sectional study. Participants were 346 treatment naive HIV positive adult patients. These were consecutively recruited from Hoima Regional Referral hospital between March and April 2012. Data collection involved interviews, oral examinations and laboratory analysis. A total of 168(48.6%) participants had oral lesions. The four commonest lesions were oral candidiasis (24.9%, CI = 20.6-29.7%), melanotic hyperpigmentation (17.3%, CI = 13.7-21.7%), kaposi sarcoma (9.3%, CI = 6.6-12.8%) and Oral Hairy Leukoplakia (OHL) (5.5%, CI = 3.5-8.4%). There was significant association between oral candidiasis and immunosuppression measured as CD4+ less than 350 cells/mm3 (OR = 2.69, CI = 1.608-4.502, p < 0.001). Oral candidiasis was the only oral lesion significantly predictive of immunosuppression (OR = 2.56, CI = 1.52-4.30, p < 0.001) with a Positive Predictive Value (PPV) of 48.2%, Negative Predictive Value (NPV) of 74.3%, 38.1% sensitivity and specificity of 81.4%. Oral candidiasis can be considered as a marker for immunesuppression, making routine oral examinations essential in the management of HIV positive patients.
    BMC Oral Health 11/2014; 14(1):143. DOI:10.1186/1472-6831-14-143 · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Viral suppression is a key indicator of antiretroviral therapy (ART) response among HIV-infected patients. Dried blood spots (DBS) are an appealing alternative to conventional plasma-based virologic testing, improving access to monitoring in resource-limited settings. However, validity of DBS obtained from fingerstick in field settings remains unknown. Objectives Investigate feasibility and accuracy of DBS vs plasma collected by healthcare workers in real-world settings of remote hospitals in Malawi. Compare venous DBS to fingerstick DBS for identifying treatment failure. Study design We recruited patients from ART clinics at two district hospitals in Malawi, collecting plasma, venous DBS (vDBS), and fingerstick DBS (fsDBS) cards for the first 149 patients, and vDBS and fsDBS only for the subsequent 398 patients. Specimens were tested using Abbott RealTime HIV-1 Assay (lower detection limit 40 copies/ml (plasma) and 550 copies/ml (DBS)). Results 21/149 (14.1%) had detectable viremia (>1.6 log copies/ml), 13 of which were detectable for plasma, vDBS, and fsDBS. Linear regression demonstrated high correlation for plasma vs. DBS (vDBS: β=1.19, R2 0.93 (p < 0.0001); fsDBS β=1.20, R2 0.90 (p < 0.0001)) and vDBS vs. fsDBS (β=0.88, R2 0.73, (p < 0.0001)). Mean difference between plasma and vDBS was 0.51 log copies/ml [SD: 0.33] and plasma and fsDBS 0.46 log copies/ml [SD: 0.30]. At 5000 copies/ml, sensitivity was 100%, and specificity was 98.6% and 97.8% for vDBS and fsDBS, respectively, compared to plasma. Conclusions DBS from venipuncture and fingerstick perform well at the failure threshold of 5000 copies/ml. Fingerstick specimen source may improve access to virologic treatment monitoring in resource-limited settings given task-shifting in high-volume, low-resource facilities.
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