Viral load testing in resource-limited settings

Clinical Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 9.42). 02/2007; 44(1):139-40. DOI: 10.1086/510090
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Human Immune Virus (HIV) related oral lesions and their association with Cluster of Differentiation 4 (CD4+) count among treatment naive HIV positive patients. This was a descriptive and analytical cross sectional study. Participants were 346 treatment naive HIV positive adult patients. These were consecutively recruited from Hoima Regional Referral hospital between March and April 2012. Data collection involved interviews, oral examinations and laboratory analysis. A total of 168(48.6%) participants had oral lesions. The four commonest lesions were oral candidiasis (24.9%, CI = 20.6-29.7%), melanotic hyperpigmentation (17.3%, CI = 13.7-21.7%), kaposi sarcoma (9.3%, CI = 6.6-12.8%) and Oral Hairy Leukoplakia (OHL) (5.5%, CI = 3.5-8.4%). There was significant association between oral candidiasis and immunosuppression measured as CD4+ less than 350 cells/mm3 (OR = 2.69, CI = 1.608-4.502, p < 0.001). Oral candidiasis was the only oral lesion significantly predictive of immunosuppression (OR = 2.56, CI = 1.52-4.30, p < 0.001) with a Positive Predictive Value (PPV) of 48.2%, Negative Predictive Value (NPV) of 74.3%, 38.1% sensitivity and specificity of 81.4%. Oral candidiasis can be considered as a marker for immunesuppression, making routine oral examinations essential in the management of HIV positive patients.
    BMC Oral Health 11/2014; 14(1):143. DOI:10.1186/1472-6831-14-143 · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antiretroviral resistance leads to treatment failure and resistance transmission. Resistance data in western Kenya are limited. Collection of non-plasma analytes may provide additional resistance information. We assessed HIV diversity using the REGA tool, transmitted resistance by the WHO mutation list and acquired resistance upon first-line failure by the IAS-USA mutation list, at the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH), a major treatment programme in western Kenya. Plasma and four non-plasma analytes, dried blood-spots (DBS), dried plasma-spots (DPS), ViveSTTM-plasma (STP) and ViveST-blood (STB), were compared to identify diversity and evaluate sequence concordance. Among 122 patients, 62 were treatment-naïve and 60 treatment-experienced; 61% were female, median age 35 years, median CD4 182 cells/µL, median viral-load 4.6 log10 copies/mL. One hundred and ninety-six sequences were available for 107/122 (88%) patients, 58/62 (94%) treatment-naïve and 49/60 (82%) treated; 100/122 (82%) plasma, 37/78 (47%) attempted DBS, 16/45 (36%) attempted DPS, 14/44 (32%) attempted STP from fresh plasma and 23/34 (68%) from frozen plasma, and 5/42 (12%) attempted STB. Plasma and DBS genotyping success increased at higher VL and shorter shipment-to-genotyping time. Main subtypes were A (62%), D (15%) and C (6%). Transmitted resistance was found in 1.8% of plasma sequences, and 7% combining analytes. Plasma resistance mutations were identified in 91% of treated patients, 76% NRTI, 91% NNRTI; 76% dual-class; 60% with intermediate-high predicted resistance to future treatment options; with novel mutation co-occurrence patterns. Nearly 88% of plasma mutations were identified in DBS, 89% in DPS and 94% in STP. Of 23 discordant mutations, 92% in plasma and 60% in non-plasma analytes were mixtures. Mean whole-sequence discordance from frozen plasma reference was 1.1% for plasma-DBS, 1.2% plasma-DPS, 2.0% plasma-STP and 2.3% plasma-STB. Of 23 plasma-STP discordances, one mutation was identified in plasma and 22 in STP (p<0.05). Discordance was inversely significantly related to VL for DBS. In a large treatment programme in western Kenya, we report high HIV-1 subtype diversity; low plasma transmitted resistance, increasing when multiple analytes were combined; and high-acquired resistance with unique mutation patterns. Resistance surveillance may be augmented by using non-plasma analytes for lower-cost genotyping in resource-limited settings.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 11/2014; 17(1):19262. DOI:10.7448/IAS.17.1.19262 · 4.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Viral suppression is a key indicator of antiretroviral therapy (ART) response among HIV-infected patients. Dried blood spots (DBS) are an appealing alternative to conventional plasma-based virologic testing, improving access to monitoring in resource-limited settings. However, validity of DBS obtained from fingerstick in field settings remains unknown. Objectives Investigate feasibility and accuracy of DBS vs plasma collected by healthcare workers in real-world settings of remote hospitals in Malawi. Compare venous DBS to fingerstick DBS for identifying treatment failure. Study design We recruited patients from ART clinics at two district hospitals in Malawi, collecting plasma, venous DBS (vDBS), and fingerstick DBS (fsDBS) cards for the first 149 patients, and vDBS and fsDBS only for the subsequent 398 patients. Specimens were tested using Abbott RealTime HIV-1 Assay (lower detection limit 40 copies/ml (plasma) and 550 copies/ml (DBS)). Results 21/149 (14.1%) had detectable viremia (>1.6 log copies/ml), 13 of which were detectable for plasma, vDBS, and fsDBS. Linear regression demonstrated high correlation for plasma vs. DBS (vDBS: β=1.19, R2 0.93 (p < 0.0001); fsDBS β=1.20, R2 0.90 (p < 0.0001)) and vDBS vs. fsDBS (β=0.88, R2 0.73, (p < 0.0001)). Mean difference between plasma and vDBS was 0.51 log copies/ml [SD: 0.33] and plasma and fsDBS 0.46 log copies/ml [SD: 0.30]. At 5000 copies/ml, sensitivity was 100%, and specificity was 98.6% and 97.8% for vDBS and fsDBS, respectively, compared to plasma. Conclusions DBS from venipuncture and fingerstick perform well at the failure threshold of 5000 copies/ml. Fingerstick specimen source may improve access to virologic treatment monitoring in resource-limited settings given task-shifting in high-volume, low-resource facilities.
    Journal of Clinical Virology 08/2014; 60(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jcv.2014.05.005 · 3.47 Impact Factor