Article

Mouse double minute antagonist Nutlin-3a enhances chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in cancer cells with mutant p53 by activating E2F1.

Laboratory of New Drug Development, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA.
Oncogene (Impact Factor: 8.56). 06/2007; 26(24):3473-81. DOI: 10.1038/sj.onc.1210136
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT MDM2 is a critical negative regulator of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. Recently, small-molecule antagonists of MDM2, the Nutlins, have been developed to inhibit the p53-MDM2 interaction and activate p53 signaling. However, half of human cancers have mutated p53 and they are resistant to Nutlin treatment. Here, we report that treatment of the p53-mutant malignant peripheral nerve sheath (MPNST) and p53-null HCT116 cells with cisplatin (Cis) and Nutlin-3a induced a degree of apoptosis that was significantly greater than either drug alone. Nutlin-3a also increased the cytotoxicity of both carboplatin and doxorubicin in a series of p53-mutant human tumor cell lines. In the human dedifferentiated liposarcoma cell line (LS141) and the p53 wild-type HCT116 cells, Nutlin-3a induced downregulation of E2F1 and this effect appeared to be proteasome dependent. In contrast, in MPNST and HCTp53-/- cells, Nutlin-3a inhibited the binding of E2F1 to MDM2 and induced transcriptional activation of free E2F1 in the presence of Cis-induced DNA damage. Downregulation of E2F1 by small interfering RNA significantly decreased the level of apoptosis induced by Cis and Nutlin-3a treatment. Moreover, expression of a dominant-negative form of E2F1 rescued cells from apoptosis, whereas cells overexpressing wild-type E2F1 showed an increase in cell death. This correlated with the induction of the proapoptotic proteins p73alpha and Noxa, which are both regulated by E2F1. These results indicate that antagonism of MDM2 by Nutlin-3a in cells with mutant p53 enhances chemosensitivity in an E2F1-dependent manner. Nutlin-3a therefore may provide a therapeutic benefit in tumors with mutant p53 provided it is combined with chemotherapy.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
52 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Various experimental strategies aim to (re)activate p53 signalling in cancer cells. The most advanced clinically are small-molecule inhibitors of the autoregulatory interaction between p53 and MDM2 (murine double minute 2). Different MDM2 inhibitors are currently under investigation in clinical trials. As for other targeted anti-cancer therapy approaches, relatively rapid resistance acquisition may limit the clinical efficacy of MDM2 inhibitors. In particular, MDM2 inhibitors were shown to induce p53 mutations in experimental systems. In the present article, we summarize what is known about MDM2 inhibitors as anti-cancer drugs with a focus on the acquisition of resistance to these compounds.
    Biochemical Society Transactions 08/2014; 42(4):752-7. · 3.24 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Many patients with acute myeloid leukemia will eventually develop refractory or relapsed disease. In the absence of standard therapy for this population, there is currently an urgent unmet need for novel therapeutic agents. Targeted therapy with small molecule inhibitors represents a new therapeutic intervention that has been successful for the treatment of multiple tumors (e.g., gastrointestinal stromal tumors, chronic myelogenous leukemia). Hence, there has been great interest in generating selective small molecule inhibitors targeting critical pathways of proliferation and survival in acute myeloid leukemia. This review highlights a selective group of intriguing therapeutic agents and their presumed targets in both preclinical models and in early human clinical trials.
    Expert Review of Hematology 08/2014; 7(4):439-464. · 2.14 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: p53 is an important tumor suppressor gene, which is stimulated by cellular stress like ionizing radiation, hypoxia, carcinogens, and oxidative stress. Upon activation, p53 leads to cell-cycle arrest and promotes DNA repair or induces apoptosis via several pathways. p63 and p73 are structural homologs of p53 that can act similarly to the protein and also hold functions distinct from p53. Today more than 40 different isoforms of the p53 family members are known. They result from transcription via different promoters and alternative splicing. Some isoforms have carcinogenic properties and mediate resistance to chemotherapy. Therefore, expression patterns of the p53 family genes can offer prognostic information in several malignant tumors. Furthermore, the p53 family constitutes a potential target for cancer therapy. Small molecules (e.g., Nutlins, RITA, PRIMA-1, and MIRA-1 among others) have been objects of intense research interest in recent years. They restore pro-apoptotic wild-type p53 function and were shown to break chemotherapeutic resistance. Due to p53 family interactions small molecules also influence p63 and p73 activity. Thus, the members of the p53 family are key players in the cellular stress response in cancer and are expected to grow in importance as therapeutic targets.
    Frontiers in oncology. 01/2014; 4:285.

Preview

Download
0 Downloads
Available from