Net portal and hepatic flux of nutrients in growing wethers fed high-concentrate diets with oscillating protein concentrations.

USDA-ARS, US Meat Animal Research Center, Clay Center, NE 68933-0166, USA.
Journal of Animal Science (Impact Factor: 1.92). 05/2007; 85(4):997-1005. DOI: 10.2527/jas.2006-547
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We hypothesized that oscillating dietary CP would improve N retention by increasing the uptake of endogenous urea N by portal drained viscera (PDV), compared with static dietary CP regimens. Chronic indwelling catheters were surgically implanted in the abdominal aorta, a mesenteric vein, a hepatic vein, and the portal vein of 18 growing Dorset x Suffolk wethers (44.6 +/- 3.6 kg of BW). Wethers had ad libitum access to the following diets in a completely randomized block design: 1) Low (9.9% CP), 2) Medium (12.5% CP), or 3) Low and High (14.2% CP) diets oscillated on a 48-h interval (Osc). Dry matter intake was greater (P = 0.04) for the Osc diet (1,313 g/d) than the Low diet (987 g/d) and was intermediate for the Medium diet (1,112 g/d). Nitrogen intake was not different between the wethers fed the Osc (25.4 g/d) and Medium diets (22.2 g/d), but was lower (P < 0.01) in wethers fed the Low diet (16.0 g/d). Wethers fed the Osc diet (6.7 g/d) retained more (P < 0.04) N than did those fed the Medium diet (4.0 g/d). Hepatic arterial blood flow was not different (P = 0.81) between wethers fed the Osc (31 L/h) or Medium diet (39 L/h) but was greater (P = 0.05) in wethers fed the Low diet (66 L/h). Net release of alpha-amino N by the PDV did not differ (P = 0.90) between the Low (37.8 mmol/h) and Medium diets (41.5 mmol/h) or between the Osc (53.0 mmol/h) and Medium diets (P = 0.29). Net PDV release of ammonia N was less (P = 0.05) for the Low diet than for the Medium diet, and this was accompanied by a similar decrease (P = 0.04) in hepatic ammonia N uptake. Urea N concentrations tended to be (P = 0.06) less in arterial, portal, and hepatic blood in wethers fed the Low diet compared with those fed the Medium diet. Wethers fed the Osc diet tended (P = 0.06) to have a greater PDV uptake of urea N than did those fed the Medium diet, but there was no difference between the Osc and Medium diets (P = 0.72) in hepatic urea N release. Net PDV uptake of glutamine tended to be greater (P < 0.07) in wethers fed the Low diet (6.7 mmol/h) than those fed the Medium diet (2.7 mmol/h). These data indicate that oscillating dietary protein may improve N retention by increasing endogenous urea N uptake by the gastrointestinal tract.

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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of oscillating dietary CP on N metabolism and microbial protein synthesis in growing lambs. Twenty Suffolk ram lambs (27.8±2.3kg initial BW) were used in a completely randomized design with a 24-d experimental period. The experimental treatments were a 95gCP/kg DM (LOW; n=4), 125gCP/kg DM (MEDIUM; n=4), 155gCP/kg DM (HIGH; n=4) or oscillating (OSC; LOW and HIGH diets oscillated on a 48-h basis; n=8) CP diets. Lambs were adapted to experimental treatments for 16 d followed by 8 d of data collection. Nitrogen intake did not differ (P=0.50) between lambs fed MEDIUM (29.8g/d) and OSC (28.6g/d) diets. Increasing dietary CP concentrations linearly increased N retention (P
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    ABSTRACT: Our objective was to determine the effects of feeding oscillating compared with static dietary crude protein (CP) concentrations on nitrogen (N) retention and urea flux across ruminal epithelia. Twenty-seven Suffolk wether lambs (n = 9) were assigned to a medium-CP diet [MEDIUM; 127 g CP⋅kg dry matter (DM)(-1)] or to diets with oscillating CP content (OSC) fed in 2 different sequences, i.e. 2 d of low CP (103 g CP⋅kg DM(-1)) followed by 2 d of high CP (161 g CP⋅kg DM(-1); OSC-HIGH) or vice versa (OSC-LOW). Diet adaptation was for 24 d, followed by 8 d of total urine and feces collection. On d 33, lambs were slaughtered 4 h after the morning feeding, such that those receiving OSC-LOW and OSC-HIGH diets were slaughtered on d 3 of receiving the low- or high-CP diets, respectively. Ruminal epithelia were collected and mounted in Ussing chambers and the serosal-to-mucosal urea flux (J(sm-urea)) was measured using (14)C-urea. Ruminal NH(3)-N concentration was lower (P = 0.001) in lambs fed OSC-LOW compared with those fed OSC-HIGH. Although N intake was similar, retained N (P = 0.001) and microbial N supply (P = 0.001) were greater in lambs fed OSC compared with those fed MEDIUM. The total J(sm-urea) was higher (P = 0.001) in lambs fed OSC-LOW compared with those fed OSC-HIGH. Across diets, the addition of phloretin [a known specific inhibitor of facilitative urea transporter (UT)-B] reduced J(sm-urea) by 19.5-22.3% (P = 0.001); however, phloretin-insensitive J(sm-urea) was the predominant route for transepithelial urea transfer. Taken together, these data indicate that feeding oscillating dietary CP concentrations improves N retention partly by increasing urea recycling to the rumen when animals are fed low-CP diets, but the greater rates of urea transfer cannot be attributable to upregulation of UT-B.
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