Oxidation state governs structural transitions in peroxiredoxin II that correlate with cell cycle arrest and recovery. J Cell Biol

Department of Pathology, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT 05405, USA.
The Journal of Cell Biology (Impact Factor: 9.69). 01/2007; 175(5):779-89. DOI: 10.1083/jcb.200606005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Inactivation of eukaryotic 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (Prxs) by hyperoxidation has been proposed to promote accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for redox-dependent signaling events. We examined the oxidation and oligomeric states of PrxI and -II in epithelial cells during mitogenic signaling and in response to fluxes of H2O2. During normal mitogenic signaling, hyperoxidation of PrxI and -II was not detected. In contrast, H2O2-dependent cell cycle arrest was correlated with hyperoxidation of PrxII, which resulted in quantitative recruitment of approximately 66- and approximately 140-kD PrxII complexes into large filamentous oligomers. Expression of cyclin D1 and cell proliferation did not resume until PrxII-SO2H was reduced and native PrxII complexes were regenerated. Ectopic expression of PrxI or -II increased Prx-SO2H levels in response to oxidant exposure and failed to protect cells from arrest. We propose a model in which Prxs function as peroxide dosimeters in subcellular processes that involve redox cycling, with hyperoxidation controlling structural transitions that alert cells of perturbations in peroxide homeostasis.

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Available from: Paula B Deming, Aug 28, 2015
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    • "In this way, Prxs may continuously interpret and report peroxide levels by using their redox and oligomeric states. They could function as highly sensitive peroxide dosimeters that link oxidant metabolism to a variety of redox-dependent processes required for cell cycle re-entry (Phalen et al., 2006). The different mechanisms in which sensitivity to oxidation of 2-Cys Prxs is involved in its signalling function have been reviewed (Hall et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: In plants, the presence of thioredoxin (Trx), peroxiredoxin (Prx), and sulfiredoxin (Srx) has been reported as a component of a redox system involved in the control of dithiol-disulfide exchanges of target proteins, which modulate redox signalling during development and stress adaptation. Plant thiols, and specifically redox state and regulation of thiol groups of cysteinyl residues in proteins and transcription factors, are emerging as key components in the plant response to almost all stress conditions. They function in both redox sensing and signal transduction pathways. Scarce information exists on the transcriptional regulation of genes encoding Trx/Prx and on the transcriptional and post-transcriptional control exercised by these proteins on their putative targets. As another point of control, post-translational regulation of the proteins, such as S-nitrosylation and S-oxidation, is of increasing interest for its effect on protein structure and function. Special attention is given to the involvement of the Trx/Prx/Srx system and its redox state in plant signalling under stress, more specifically under abiotic stress conditions, as an important cue that influences plant yield and growth. This review focuses on the regulation of Trx and Prx through cysteine S-oxidation and/or S-nitrosylation, which affects their functionality. Some examples of redox regulation of transcription factors and Trx- and Prx-related genes are also presented. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:
    Journal of Experimental Botany 04/2015; 66(10). DOI:10.1093/jxb/erv146 · 5.79 Impact Factor
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    • "For example, the oxidation state of PRXs is known to govern interactions with regulatory factors [17]. In our previous studies we observed that expression of cyclin D1 and recovery from cell cycle arrest did not occur until hyperoxidized PRXs were reduced [32]. Because inactivation of PRXs in response to oxidative insult is rapid and recovery is slow, whereas TR activity is unaffected, we suggest that TR sits at the top of a protein redox pyramid that controls a hierarchy of responses to oxidative stress (Fig. 6). "
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    ABSTRACT: Thioredoxin reductase (TR) catalyzes the reduction of thioredoxin (TRX), which in turn reduces mammalian typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (PRXs 1-4), thiol peroxidases implicated in redox homeostasis and cell signaling. Typical 2-Cys PRXs are inactivated by hyperoxidation of the peroxidatic cysteine to cysteine-sulfinic acid, and regenerated in a two-step process involving retro-reduction by sulfiredoxin (SRX) and reduction by TRX. Here transient exposure to menadione and glucose oxidase was used to examine the dynamics of oxidative inactivation and reactivation of PRXs in mouse C10 cells expressing various isoforms of TR, including wild type cytoplasmic TR1 (Sec-TR1) and mitochondrial TR2 (Sec-TR2) that encode selenocysteine, as well as mutants of TR1 and TR2 in which the selenocysteine codon was changed to encode cysteine (Cys-TR1 or Cys-TR2). In C10 cells endogenous TR activity was insensitive to levels of hydrogen peroxide that hyperoxidize PRXs. Expression of Sec-TR1 increased TR activity, reduced the basal cytoplasmic redox state, and increased the rate of reduction of a redox-responsive cytoplasmic GFP probe (roGFP), but did not influence either the rate of inactivation or the rate of retro-reduction of PRXs. In comparison to roGFP, which was reduced within minutes once oxidants were removed reduction of 2-Cys PRXs occurred over many hours. Expression of wild type Sec-TR1 or Sec-TR2, but not Cys-TR1 or TR2, increased the rate of reduction of PRXs and improved cell survival after menadione exposure. These results indicate that expression levels of TR do not reduce the severity of initial oxidative insults, but rather govern the rate of reduction of cellular factors required for cell viability. Because Sec-TR is completely insensitive to cytotoxic levels of hydrogen peroxide, we suggest TR functions at the top of a redox pyramid that governs the oxidation state of peroxiredoxins and other protein factors, thereby dictating a hierarchy of phenotypic responses to oxidative insults.
    02/2014; 2:475-84. DOI:10.1016/j.redox.2014.01.021
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    • "Protein concentrations were determined using Bradford assays (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA). Lysates (20–25 µg protein/well) were resolved by SDS-PAGE and prepared for immunoblotting as previously described [69]. Blots were incubated at 4°C overnight with rabbit anti-FOXM1 K19 polyclonal antibody (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA) at a 1∶500 dilution in blocking buffer, and after washing protein bands were visualized with the Western Lightning chemiluminescent detection system (Perkin Elmer, Waltham, MA) using secondary antibodies coupled to horse radish peroxidase. "
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    ABSTRACT: Thiostrepton (TS) is a thiazole antibiotic that inhibits expression of FOXM1, an oncogenic transcription factor required for cell cycle progression and resistance to oncogene-induced oxidative stress. The mechanism of action of TS is unclear and strategies that enhance TS activity will improve its therapeutic potential. Analysis of human tumor specimens showed FOXM1 is broadly expressed in malignant mesothelioma (MM), an intractable tumor associated with asbestos exposure. The mechanism of action of TS was investigated in a cell culture model of human MM. As for other tumor cell types, TS inhibited expression of FOXM1 in MM cells in a dose-dependent manner. Suppression of FOXM1 expression and coincidental activation of ERK1/2 by TS were abrogated by pre-incubation of cells with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), indicating its mechanism of action in MM cells is redox-dependent. Examination of the mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase 2 (TR2)-thioredoxin 2 (TRX2)-peroxiredoxin 3 (PRX3) antioxidant network revealed that TS modifies the electrophoretic mobility of PRX3. Incubation of recombinant human PRX3 with TS in vitro also resulted in PRX3 with altered electrophoretic mobility. The cellular and recombinant species of modified PRX3 were resistant to dithiothreitol and SDS and suppressed by NAC, indicating that TS covalently adducts cysteine residues in PRX3. Reduction of endogenous mitochondrial TRX2 levels by the cationic triphenylmethane gentian violet (GV) promoted modification of PRX3 by TS and significantly enhanced its cytotoxic activity. Our results indicate TS covalently adducts PRX3, thereby disabling a major mitochondrial antioxidant network that counters chronic mitochondrial oxidative stress. Redox-active compounds like GV that modify the TR2/TRX2 network may significantly enhance the efficacy of TS, thereby providing a combinatorial approach for exploiting redox-dependent perturbations in mitochondrial function as a therapeutic approach in mesothelioma.
    PLoS ONE 06/2012; 7(6):e39404. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0039404 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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