Oxidation state governs structural transitions in peroxiredoxin II that correlate with cell cycle arrest and recovery. J Cell Biol

Department of Pathology, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT 05405, USA.
The Journal of Cell Biology (Impact Factor: 9.83). 01/2007; 175(5):779-89. DOI: 10.1083/jcb.200606005
Source: PubMed


Inactivation of eukaryotic 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (Prxs) by hyperoxidation has been proposed to promote accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for redox-dependent signaling events. We examined the oxidation and oligomeric states of PrxI and -II in epithelial cells during mitogenic signaling and in response to fluxes of H2O2. During normal mitogenic signaling, hyperoxidation of PrxI and -II was not detected. In contrast, H2O2-dependent cell cycle arrest was correlated with hyperoxidation of PrxII, which resulted in quantitative recruitment of approximately 66- and approximately 140-kD PrxII complexes into large filamentous oligomers. Expression of cyclin D1 and cell proliferation did not resume until PrxII-SO2H was reduced and native PrxII complexes were regenerated. Ectopic expression of PrxI or -II increased Prx-SO2H levels in response to oxidant exposure and failed to protect cells from arrest. We propose a model in which Prxs function as peroxide dosimeters in subcellular processes that involve redox cycling, with hyperoxidation controlling structural transitions that alert cells of perturbations in peroxide homeostasis.

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Available from: Paula B Deming, Oct 05, 2015
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    • "In this way, Prxs may continuously interpret and report peroxide levels by using their redox and oligomeric states. They could function as highly sensitive peroxide dosimeters that link oxidant metabolism to a variety of redox-dependent processes required for cell cycle re-entry (Phalen et al., 2006). The different mechanisms in which sensitivity to oxidation of 2-Cys Prxs is involved in its signalling function have been reviewed (Hall et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: In plants, the presence of thioredoxin (Trx), peroxiredoxin (Prx), and sulfiredoxin (Srx) has been reported as a component of a redox system involved in the control of dithiol-disulfide exchanges of target proteins, which modulate redox signalling during development and stress adaptation. Plant thiols, and specifically redox state and regulation of thiol groups of cysteinyl residues in proteins and transcription factors, are emerging as key components in the plant response to almost all stress conditions. They function in both redox sensing and signal transduction pathways. Scarce information exists on the transcriptional regulation of genes encoding Trx/Prx and on the transcriptional and post-transcriptional control exercised by these proteins on their putative targets. As another point of control, post-translational regulation of the proteins, such as S-nitrosylation and S-oxidation, is of increasing interest for its effect on protein structure and function. Special attention is given to the involvement of the Trx/Prx/Srx system and its redox state in plant signalling under stress, more specifically under abiotic stress conditions, as an important cue that influences plant yield and growth. This review focuses on the regulation of Trx and Prx through cysteine S-oxidation and/or S-nitrosylation, which affects their functionality. Some examples of redox regulation of transcription factors and Trx- and Prx-related genes are also presented. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:
    Journal of Experimental Botany 04/2015; 66(10). DOI:10.1093/jxb/erv146 · 5.53 Impact Factor
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    • "For example, the oxidation state of PRXs is known to govern interactions with regulatory factors [17]. In our previous studies we observed that expression of cyclin D1 and recovery from cell cycle arrest did not occur until hyperoxidized PRXs were reduced [32]. Because inactivation of PRXs in response to oxidative insult is rapid and recovery is slow, whereas TR activity is unaffected, we suggest that TR sits at the top of a protein redox pyramid that controls a hierarchy of responses to oxidative stress (Fig. 6). "
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    ABSTRACT: Thioredoxin reductase (TR) catalyzes the reduction of thioredoxin (TRX), which in turn reduces mammalian typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (PRXs 1-4), thiol peroxidases implicated in redox homeostasis and cell signaling. Typical 2-Cys PRXs are inactivated by hyperoxidation of the peroxidatic cysteine to cysteine-sulfinic acid, and regenerated in a two-step process involving retro-reduction by sulfiredoxin (SRX) and reduction by TRX. Here transient exposure to menadione and glucose oxidase was used to examine the dynamics of oxidative inactivation and reactivation of PRXs in mouse C10 cells expressing various isoforms of TR, including wild type cytoplasmic TR1 (Sec-TR1) and mitochondrial TR2 (Sec-TR2) that encode selenocysteine, as well as mutants of TR1 and TR2 in which the selenocysteine codon was changed to encode cysteine (Cys-TR1 or Cys-TR2). In C10 cells endogenous TR activity was insensitive to levels of hydrogen peroxide that hyperoxidize PRXs. Expression of Sec-TR1 increased TR activity, reduced the basal cytoplasmic redox state, and increased the rate of reduction of a redox-responsive cytoplasmic GFP probe (roGFP), but did not influence either the rate of inactivation or the rate of retro-reduction of PRXs. In comparison to roGFP, which was reduced within minutes once oxidants were removed reduction of 2-Cys PRXs occurred over many hours. Expression of wild type Sec-TR1 or Sec-TR2, but not Cys-TR1 or TR2, increased the rate of reduction of PRXs and improved cell survival after menadione exposure. These results indicate that expression levels of TR do not reduce the severity of initial oxidative insults, but rather govern the rate of reduction of cellular factors required for cell viability. Because Sec-TR is completely insensitive to cytotoxic levels of hydrogen peroxide, we suggest TR functions at the top of a redox pyramid that governs the oxidation state of peroxiredoxins and other protein factors, thereby dictating a hierarchy of phenotypic responses to oxidative insults.
    02/2014; 2(1):475-84. DOI:10.1016/j.redox.2014.01.021
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    • "Considering that at low concentrations H 2 O 2 is a signal molecule known to regulate cell grown and differentiation, the hampered enzymatic activity under oxidative conditions of 2-cys Prxs bears several implications in the stress and non-stress oxidative signaling [Neumann et al., 2009]. As a matter of fact, hyperoxidized 2-cys Prx has been demonstrated to play different roles in signaling: (i) As a ''triage'' agent, making available reduced thioredoxin to supply reducing equivalents to a redox-sensitive trascriptional factor PaP1, as recently observed in yeast [Day et al., 2012] (ii) as a peroxide ''dosimeter'' able to regulate cell cycle [Phalen et al., 2006] and (iii) as a ''floodgate'' where, upon its inactivation, local increments of H 2 O 2 for signal purposes become available [Hall et al., 2009]. In eukaryotic cells, Prx hyperoxidation and, consequently, the arising signaling events are reversed by the action of sulfiredoxin, an enzyme able to restore the normal condition of Prx reducing sulfinic acid state of its catalytic cysteine [Lowther and Haynes, 2011]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Peroxiredoxins are ubiquitous proteins that recently attracted major interests in view of the strict correlation observed in several cell lines and/or tissues between different levels of their expression and the increased capacity of cells to survive in different pathophysiological conditions. They are recently considered as the most important enzymes regulating the concentration of hydroperoxides inside the cells. Most of neurodisorders such as Parkinson, Huntington, Alzheimer's diseases and ischemic injury are characterized by conditions of oxidative stress inside cells. In these pathophysiological conditions, a strict correlation between cell survival and Prx expression has been found. In CNS all the Prx isoforms are present though with different expression pattern depending on cell phenotype. Interestingly, neurons treated with amyloid beta peptide (Aβ), showed an overexpression of PrxI. In this study, the neuroprotective effect of PrxI after Aβ exposure and the underlying mechanisms by which PrxI expression counteracts cell death was investigated in a well established human AD in vitro model. Taking advantage on cells transfected by a construct where human PrxI is fused with a Green fluorescent protein (GFP) at the C-terminus, we report some events at the basis of cell survival after Aβ injury, suggesting possible new signal cascades dealing with the antiapoptotic effect of PrxI. The results obtained indicated a protective role for PrxI in counteracting Aß injury by increasing cell viability, preserving neurites and decreasing cell death. J. Cell. Biochem. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 03/2013; 114(3). DOI:10.1002/jcb.24412 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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