Blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry extracts inhibit growth and stimulate apoptosis of human cancer cells in vitro
ABSTRACT Berry fruits are widely consumed in our diet and have attracted much attention due to their potential human health benefits. Berries contain a diverse range of phytochemicals with biological properties such as antioxidant, anticancer, anti-neurodegerative, and anti-inflammatory activities. In the current study, extracts of six popularly consumed berries--blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry and strawberry--were evaluated for their phenolic constituents using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) detection. The major classes of berry phenolics were anthocyanins, flavonols, flavanols, ellagitannins, gallotannins, proanthocyanidins, and phenolic acids. The berry extracts were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of human oral (KB, CAL-27), breast (MCF-7), colon (HT-29, HCT116), and prostate (LNCaP) tumor cell lines at concentrations ranging from 25 to 200 micro g/mL. With increasing concentration of berry extract, increasing inhibition of cell proliferation in all of the cell lines were observed, with different degrees of potency between cell lines. The berry extracts were also evaluated for their ability to stimulate apoptosis of the COX-2 expressing colon cancer cell line, HT-29. Black raspberry and strawberry extracts showed the most significant pro-apoptotic effects against this cell line. The data provided by the current study and from other laboratories warrants further investigation into the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects of berries using in vivo models.
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ABSTRACT: Extracts with antioxidant compounds were obtained from residues of blackberries (Rubus fruticosus L.) through pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The influence of solvent type (water, acidified water pH = 2.5, ethanol and ethanol + water 50% v:v) and temperature (60, 80 and 100 °C) on global yield (X0), total phenolics (TP), monomeric anthocyanins (MA) and antioxidant activity (AA) (by DPPH and ABTS) of the extracts was evaluated. Moreover, anthocyanins were identified and quantified by UHPLC-QToF-MS e UHPLC-UV-Vis, respectively. The best PLE condition was compared to conventional extractions (Soxhlet and maceration). Results showed positive influence of temperature on global yield, TP and AA. Ethanol + water as solvent at 100 °C was chosen as the best PLE condition, providing TP = 7.36 mgGAE/g fresh residue, MA = 1.02 mg C3GE/g fresh residue, AA = 76.03 μmol TE/g fresh residue and X0 = 6.33%. Excepting MA, all other results were over those of conventional extractions. Four anthocyanins were identified by UHPLC in the extracts, and their higher yields were achieved with acidified water as solvent at 60 and 80 °C. PLE has proved to be a promising alternative to recover bioactive compounds from blackberry residues, as well as other food by-products.Food Research International 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.foodres.2014.12.042 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts of ten cultivars of Highbush and Rabbiteye Brazilian blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. and Vacciniumashei Reade, respectively) that are used for commercial production were analysed for antioxidant activity by the FRAP, ORAC, ABTS and β-carotene–linoleate methods. Results were correlated to the amounts of carotenoids, total phenolics and anthocyanins. Brazilian blueberries had relatively high concentration of total phenolics (1622–3457 mg gallic acid equivalents per 100 g DW) and total anthocyanins (140–318 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents per 100 g DW), as well as being a good source of carotenoids. There was a higher positive correlation between the amounts of these compounds and the antioxidant activity of hydrophilic compared to lipophilic extracts. There were also significant differences in the level of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities between different cultivars, production location and year of cultivation.Food Chemistry 12/2014; 164:81–88. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.04.114 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effect of the application of different high pressure thermal (HPT) treatments on the instrumental colour, the activity of the polyphenoloxidase (PPO) enzyme, bioactive compounds (total polyphenols and anthocyanins) content and the antioxidant activity were evaluated after processing a red flesh and peel plum purée and compared to an equivalent thermal treatment (TT) from a microbiological point of view. Different pressure levels (300, 600, and 900 MPa) at different initial processing temperatures (60, 70, and 80 °C) were applied with the same holding time (1 min). HPT treatments produced a similar inactivation of the PPO as the TT (~ 50%). In addition, HPT treatment was more effective than the TT in preserving the original colour, the anthocyanins content (HPT treatments were between 2.33 to 3.06 mg 100 g− 1 fresh weight while TT was 2.35 mg 100 g− 1 fresh weight, being 3.03 mg 100 g− 1 fresh weight content of control purées) and the antioxidant activity (HPT treatments were between 94.7% to 119.2% while TT value was 80.4% from original purée content) of the processed purées. The application of pressures at 600 MPa combined with initial temperatures of 70 °C was the treatment which gave the highest inactivation of the polyphenoloxidase and best maintained the bioactive compounds of purées. Industrial relevance The exploration of new technologies, such as the combination of pressure and heating for short times (high pressure thermal or HPT treatments), could be a new way to extend the shelf-life of fruit-derived products. HPT treatments can better preserve bioactive compared to most traditional thermal treatment. While there are currently no HPT-processed shelf-stable foods commercially available, it’s possible to provide a viable process for heat-sensitive products such as fruit-derived products that would suffer a severe loss of quality by the application of a traditional thermal process. A previous study (González-Cebrino et al., 2013) showed that high pressure processing (HPP) did not inactivate polyphenoloxidase enzyme in plum purée. Results of this paper could allow production of a plum purée with an enzyme activity similar to a thermally treated purée.Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ifset.2014.08.002 · 2.25 Impact Factor