Blackberry, Black Raspberry, Blueberry, Cranberry, Red Raspberry, and Strawberry Extracts Inhibit Growth and Stimulate Apoptosis of Human Cancer Cells In Vitro

Center for Human Nutrition, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (Impact Factor: 2.91). 01/2007; 54(25):9329-39. DOI: 10.1021/jf061750g
Source: PubMed


Berry fruits are widely consumed in our diet and have attracted much attention due to their potential human health benefits. Berries contain a diverse range of phytochemicals with biological properties such as antioxidant, anticancer, anti-neurodegerative, and anti-inflammatory activities. In the current study, extracts of six popularly consumed berries--blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry and strawberry--were evaluated for their phenolic constituents using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) detection. The major classes of berry phenolics were anthocyanins, flavonols, flavanols, ellagitannins, gallotannins, proanthocyanidins, and phenolic acids. The berry extracts were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of human oral (KB, CAL-27), breast (MCF-7), colon (HT-29, HCT116), and prostate (LNCaP) tumor cell lines at concentrations ranging from 25 to 200 micro g/mL. With increasing concentration of berry extract, increasing inhibition of cell proliferation in all of the cell lines were observed, with different degrees of potency between cell lines. The berry extracts were also evaluated for their ability to stimulate apoptosis of the COX-2 expressing colon cancer cell line, HT-29. Black raspberry and strawberry extracts showed the most significant pro-apoptotic effects against this cell line. The data provided by the current study and from other laboratories warrants further investigation into the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects of berries using in vivo models.

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    • "Plums extracts could contribute to the inhibition of proliferation of cancer cells; flavonoid and procyanidins fractions and in a less extent phenolic and anthocyanins fractions inhibited the proliferation of breast cancer cell line up to 50% (Olsson et al., 2004). Among the mechanisms proposed, this class of phytochemicals seemed to have pro-apoptotic effects against colon cancer cell lines (Seeram et al., 2006). On the other side, grape peels represent one of the most important food by-product, since grapes are the second world's largest fruit crop (almost 70 millions of tons produced in 2012), of which 70% is used for wine production (FAO, 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The industrial use of fruits for the production of juices results in the accumulation of large amounts of by-products such as peels, with are still a good source of phytochemicals such as phenols and anthocyanins. In this work, the impact of two different processing configuration of pulsed electric fields (PEF-I and PEF-II in continuous, with 25 mm and 7 mm of treatment chamber diameter, respectively) and ultrasonication (US25 and US50 in batch, at 25 and 50 °C, respectively) were evaluated in order to assess these technologies as environmental friendly alternatives to water extraction at 70 °C (WE70) in plum and grape peels. US was able to increase the extraction of anthocyanins and flavonoids in plum peels, being less effective than PEF with total phenols. In grape peels, when US was performed at higher temperature (US50), the yields were significantly higher. PEF was more successful when the diameter of the chamber was larger (PEF-I), and consequently the residence time and number of pulses greater. Particularly, PEF allowed to augment several folds the extraction of anthocyanins and flavonoids from grape peels, but was deleterious for ascorbic acid. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that US50 and PEF-I were clustered and positively correlated with bioactive compounds recovery and antioxidant capacity.
    Journal of Food Engineering 12/2015; 166:268 - 275. DOI:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2015.06.012 · 2.77 Impact Factor
    • "Recent reports suggest that anthocyanins are a main contributors to the health benefits associated with the consumption of fruits and vegetables [1], such as the inhibition of cancer cell growth [2] [3], improvement of atherosclerotic and diabetic conditions [4], prevention of cell death and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by norepinephrine [5], and improvement of depressive symptoms [6] [7]. Blueberries are one of the richest sources of anthocyanins, making them a potential candidate for use in supplements and functional ingredients. "
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: A considerable body of evidence has associated the consumption of blueberries to health-related benefits, mainly because of their anthocyanin content. The extraction of these compounds could contribute to their application in functional foods and value-added products. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of anthocyanins from lowbush blueberries in a bench-scale system. METHODS: Two statistical design methods, namely full factorial and Box-Behnken, were used for the screening and optimization of the variables that significantly affect the UAE of anthocyanins. Extraction temperature, time, solvent concentration (acidified ethanol), and solvent to solid ratio were selected to determine higher anthocyanin extraction (assessed by the pH-differential method). RESULTS: When evaluated by response surface methodology, solvent to solid ratio and solvent concentration had a significant effect on UAE followed by ultrasound bath temperature. The mathematical model indicated that the highest anthocyanin extraction would be obtained with 60% acidified ethanol, solvent to solid ratio of 50 mL/g, at 65◦ C for 11.5 min. CONCLUSION: Ultrasound-assisted extraction was shown to be an effective method of extracting total anthocyanins from Nova Scotia lowbush blueberries. A statistical model to predict optimum conditions for extraction was developed using a Box Behnken design.
    Journal of Berry Research 10/2015; 5:173-181. DOI:10.3233/JBR-150100
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    • "Blackberries (Rubus spp., Rosaceae) have been appreciated by consumers, not only for their high nutritional value, but also for their benefits to physical and mental health (Ivanovic et al., 2014; Tavares et al., 2012). Besides high contents of fibers, vitamins, and essential minerals , blackberry is an important source of phenolic compounds, such as phenolic acids, tannins, elagitannins, flavonoids and anthocyanins (Elisia, Hu, Popovich, & Kitts, 2007; Hager, Howard, Liyanage, Lay, & Prior, 2008; Kaume, Howard, & Devareddy, 2011; Seeram et al., 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Extracts with antioxidant compounds were obtained from residues of blackberries (Rubus fruticosus L.) through pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The influence of solvent type (water, acidified water pH = 2.5, ethanol and ethanol + water 50% v:v) and temperature (60, 80 and 100 °C) on global yield (X0), total phenolics (TP), monomeric anthocyanins (MA) and antioxidant activity (AA) (by DPPH and ABTS) of the extracts was evaluated. Moreover, anthocyanins were identified and quantified by UHPLC-QToF-MS e UHPLC-UV-Vis, respectively. The best PLE condition was compared to conventional extractions (Soxhlet and maceration). Results showed positive influence of temperature on global yield, TP and AA. Ethanol + water as solvent at 100 °C was chosen as the best PLE condition, providing TP = 7.36 mgGAE/g fresh residue, MA = 1.02 mg C3GE/g fresh residue, AA = 76.03 μmol TE/g fresh residue and X0 = 6.33%. Excepting MA, all other results were over those of conventional extractions. Four anthocyanins were identified by UHPLC in the extracts, and their higher yields were achieved with acidified water as solvent at 60 and 80 °C. PLE has proved to be a promising alternative to recover bioactive compounds from blackberry residues, as well as other food by-products.
    Food Research International 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.foodres.2014.12.042 · 2.82 Impact Factor
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