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Blackberry, Black Raspberry, Blueberry, Cranberry, Red Raspberry, and Strawberry Extracts Inhibit Growth and Stimulate Apoptosis of Human Cancer Cells In Vitro

Center for Human Nutrition, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (Impact Factor: 3.11). 01/2007; 54(25):9329-39. DOI: 10.1021/jf061750g
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Berry fruits are widely consumed in our diet and have attracted much attention due to their potential human health benefits. Berries contain a diverse range of phytochemicals with biological properties such as antioxidant, anticancer, anti-neurodegerative, and anti-inflammatory activities. In the current study, extracts of six popularly consumed berries--blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry and strawberry--were evaluated for their phenolic constituents using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) detection. The major classes of berry phenolics were anthocyanins, flavonols, flavanols, ellagitannins, gallotannins, proanthocyanidins, and phenolic acids. The berry extracts were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of human oral (KB, CAL-27), breast (MCF-7), colon (HT-29, HCT116), and prostate (LNCaP) tumor cell lines at concentrations ranging from 25 to 200 micro g/mL. With increasing concentration of berry extract, increasing inhibition of cell proliferation in all of the cell lines were observed, with different degrees of potency between cell lines. The berry extracts were also evaluated for their ability to stimulate apoptosis of the COX-2 expressing colon cancer cell line, HT-29. Black raspberry and strawberry extracts showed the most significant pro-apoptotic effects against this cell line. The data provided by the current study and from other laboratories warrants further investigation into the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects of berries using in vivo models.

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    • "Plums extracts could contribute to the inhibition of proliferation of cancer cells; flavonoid and procyanidins fractions and in a less extent phenolic and anthocyanins fractions inhibited the proliferation of breast cancer cell line up to 50% (Olsson et al., 2004). Among the mechanisms proposed, this class of phytochemicals seemed to have pro-apoptotic effects against colon cancer cell lines (Seeram et al., 2006). On the other side, grape peels represent one of the most important food by-product, since grapes are the second world's largest fruit crop (almost 70 millions of tons produced in 2012), of which 70% is used for wine production (FAO, 2012). "
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    • "Blackberries (Rubus spp., Rosaceae) have been appreciated by consumers, not only for their high nutritional value, but also for their benefits to physical and mental health (Ivanovic et al., 2014; Tavares et al., 2012). Besides high contents of fibers, vitamins, and essential minerals , blackberry is an important source of phenolic compounds, such as phenolic acids, tannins, elagitannins, flavonoids and anthocyanins (Elisia, Hu, Popovich, & Kitts, 2007; Hager, Howard, Liyanage, Lay, & Prior, 2008; Kaume, Howard, & Devareddy, 2011; Seeram et al., 2006). "
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    • "However, the differences may be attributed to the size of the fruits (Prior et al., 1998), because many studies demonstrated that smaller fruits have a high concentration of anthocyanins, because they are more concentrated in the skin than the pulp (Gao & Mazza, 1994; Moyer et al., 2002) and because it can depend on the climactic conditions (Agati et al., 2012) and type of cultivation (Hakkinen & Torronen, 2000). Anthocyanins have been shown to have human health benefits in many studies, due to their anti-inflammatory (Krikorian et al., 2010), anticancer (Giusti & Jing, 2007; Seeram et al., 2006) and anti-mutagenic activities which are capable of blocking the metabolism of cancer cells and even kill them (Nile & Park, 2014; Smith et al., 2004). The antioxidant concentrations found in the hydrophilic extracts are shown in Table 3. "
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