Phorbol ester-induced contraction through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase is diminished in aortas from DOCA-salt hypertensive rats.
ABSTRACT The role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in the decreased contractile response to phorbol ester in aortic smooth muscle strips from deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats was examined. Norepinephrine (NE) evoked greater contractility in aortic strips from DOCA rats than in those of sham-operated rats. 12-Deoxyphorbol 13-isobutyrate (DPB) induced contraction in Ca2+-free medium, which was diminished in strips from DOCA rats compared to sham-operated rats. Vasoconstrictions induced by these stimulants were inhibited by SB203580 and PD098059, inhibitors of p38 MAPK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, respectively, in both strips. The phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 induced by NE was greater in strips from DOCA rats compared to those from sham-operated rats, and this phosphorylation was inhibited by the kinase inhibitors. DPB increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 in strips from both animals, and the increment of p38 MAPK phosphorylation by the stimulant was diminished in strips from DOCA rats compared to sham-operated rats. These findings suggest that the Ca2+-independent contraction evoked by DPB results from the activation of MAPKs in rat aortic smooth muscle and that the attenuated contractility by DPB in DOCA rat appears to be associated with diminished p38 MAPK activity.
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ABSTRACT: Aminopeptidase N (APN) or CD13 is a conserved type II integral membrane zinc-dependent metalloprotease in the M1 family of ectoenzymes. APN is abundant in the kidneys and central nervous system. Identified substrates include Angiotensin III (Ang III); neuropeptides, including enkephalins and endorphins; and homones, including kallidan and somatostatin. It is developmentally expressed, a myelomonocytic marker for leukemias, and a receptor for coronovirus. There is evolving support for APN in the regulation of arterial blood pressure and the pathogenesis of hypertension. In rodent strains, intracerebraventricular (i.c.v.) infusions of APN reduces, while inhibitors of APN activity have a pressor effect on blood pressure. Dysregulation of central APN has been linked to the pathogenesis of hypertension in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. There is evidence that renal tubule APN inhibits Na flux and plays a mechanistic role in salt-adaptation. A functional polymorphism of the ANP gene has been identified in the Dahl salt-sensitive rat. Signaling by APN impacting on blood pressure is likely mediated by regulation of the metabolism of Ang III to Ang IV. Whether APN regulates arterial blood pressure in humans or is a therapeutic target for hypertension are subjects for future exploration.Heart Failure Reviews 10/2008; 13(3):293-8. · 3.99 Impact Factor