Effect of growth compensation on subsequent physical fitness in Green Swordtails Xiphophorus helleri

University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
Biology letters (Impact Factor: 3.25). 04/2006; 2(1):39-42. DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2005.0414
Source: PubMed


Early environmental conditions have been suggested to influence subsequent locomotor performance in a range of species, but most measurements have been of initial (baseline) performance. By manipulating early growth trajectories in green swordtail fish, we show that males that underwent compensatory growth as juveniles had a similar baseline swimming endurance when mature adults to ad libitum fed controls. However, they had a reduced capacity to increase endurance with training, which is more likely to relate to Darwinian fitness. Compensatory growth may thus result in important locomotor costs later in life.

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Available from: Nick Royle, May 13, 2014
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    • "Our results are consistent with laboratory experiments in demonstrating that early life deficits (e.g. dietary restrictions, stress hormone treatments) can alter adult traits such as body size, sexual attractiveness, cognitive performance and dominance (Lindstr€ om 1999, Fisher et al. 2006, Royle et al. 2006). However, the manipulations performed in many experimental studies may impose challenges that are more severe than those faced in the wild (Drummond et al. 2011), and thus it is important to assess whether natural early life challenges also lead to these costs during adulthood. "
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    Ibis 04/2014; 156(3). DOI:10.1111/ibi.12158 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    • "Age-related compensatory trade-offs in performance have previously been considered primarily within the context of development and ontogeny. For example, poor early nutrition can have pervasive long-term effects on the adult phenotype, and consequently compensation for early developmental energy deficits can occur at subsequent life stages (Royle et al. 2006). Such examples of performance compensation over ontogeny, however, are usually intertwined with compensatory juvenile growth that seldom persists into adulthood. "
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    ABSTRACT: Phenotypic traits are often influenced by dynamic resource allocation trade-offs which, when occurring over the course of individual lifespans, may manifest as trait aging. Although aging is studied for a variety of traits that are closely tied to reproduction or reproductive effort, the aging of multiple traits related to fitness in other ways are less well understood. We took advantage of almost 30 years of data on human whole-organism performance in the National Basketball Association (U.S.A.) to examine trends of aging in performance traits associated with scoring. Given that patterns of aging differ between sexes in other animal species, we also analysed a smaller dataset on players in the Women's National Basketball Association to test for potential sex differences in the aging of comparable traits. We tested the hypothesis that age-related changes in a specific aspect of overall performance can be compensated for by elevated expression of another, related aspect. Our analyses suggest that the aging of performance traits used in basketball is generally characterised by senescence in males, whereas age-related changes in basketball performance are less evident in females. Our data also indicate a different rate of senescence of different performance traits associated with scoring over a male's lifetime. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Evolution 02/2014; 68(5). DOI:10.1111/evo.12375 · 4.61 Impact Factor
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    • "Fast growers sprint slower: effects of food deprivation and refeeding on sprint swimming performance in individual juvenile European sea bass in various taxa (Álvarez and Metcalfe, 2007; Arendt, 2003; Klukowski et al., 1998; Royle et al., 2006). However, changes in the performance of individual animals in relation to the amount of compensatory growth experienced after a period of food deprivation have not been investigated. "
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    ABSTRACT: While many ectothermic species can withstand prolonged fasting without mortality, food-deprivation may have sublethal effects of ecological importance, including reductions in locomotor ability. Little is known about how such changes in performance in individual animals are related either to mass loss during food-deprivation or growth rate during re-feeding. This study followed changes in the maximum sprint swimming performance of individual European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax throughout 45 days of food-deprivation and 30 days of re-feeding. Maximum sprint speed did not show a significant decline until 45 days of food deprivation. Among individuals, the reduction in sprinting speed at this time was not related to mass loss. After 30 days of re-feeding, mean sprinting speed had recovered to match that of control fish. Among individuals, however, maximum sprinting speed was negatively correlated with growth rate after the resumption of feeding. This suggests that the rapid compensatory growth that occurs during re-feeding after a prolonged fast carries a physiological cost in terms of reduced sprinting capacity, the extent of which shows continuous variation among individuals in relation to growth rate. The long-term repeatability of maximum sprint speed was low when fish were fasted or fed a maintenance ration, but was high among control fish fed to satiation. Fish that had been previously food deprived continued to show low repeatability in sprinting ability even after the initiation of ad libitum feeding, probably stemming from variation in compensatory growth among individuals and its associated negative effects on sprinting ability. Together these results suggest that food limitation can disrupt hierarchies of maximum sprint performance within populations. In the wild, the cumulative effects on locomotor capacity of fasting and re-feeding could lead to variable survival among individuals with different growth trajectories following a period of feed deprivation.
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