Expression of glutamate carboxypeptidase II in human brain.
ABSTRACT Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed in various tissues. When expressed in the brain it cleaves the neurotransmitter N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG), yielding free glutamate. In jejunum it hydrolyzes folylpoly-gamma-glutamate, thus facilitating folate absorption. The prostate form of GCPII, known as prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), is an established cancer marker. The NAAG-hydrolyzing activity of GCPII has been implicated in a number of pathological conditions in which glutamate is neurotoxic (e.g. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, schizophrenia, and stroke). Inhibition of GCPII was shown to be neuroprotective in tissue culture and in animal models. GCPII is therefore an interesting putative therapeutic target. However, only very limited and controversial data on the expression and localization of GCPII in human brain are available. Therefore, we set out to analyze the activity and expression of GCPII in various compartments of the human brain using a radiolabeled substrate of the enzyme and the novel monoclonal antibody GCP-04, which recognizes an epitope on the extracellular portion of the enzyme and is more sensitive to GCPII than to the homologous GCPIII. We show that this antibody is more sensitive in immunoblots than the widely used antibody 7E11. By Western blot, we show that there are approximately 50-300 ng of GCPII/mg of total protein in human brain, depending on the specific area. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that astrocytes specifically express GCPII in all parts of the brain. GCPII is enzymatically active and the level of activity follows the expression pattern. Using pure recombinant GCPII and homologous GCPIII, we conclude that GCPII is responsible for the majority of overall NAAG-hydrolyzing activity in the human brain.
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ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous cancer of men in the United States and represents their second-leading cause of cancer-related death. Metastatic disease is largely resistant to conventional chemotherapies, and targeted therapies are urgently needed. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a prototypical cell-surface marker of prostate cancer. PSMA is an integral, non-shed, type 2 membrane protein with abundant and nearly universal expression in prostate carcinoma, but has limited extra-prostatic expression. In addition, PSMA is expressed in the neovasculature of other solid tumors. These findings have spurred development of PSMA-targeted therapies for cancer, and first-generation products have entered clinical testing. Vaccine approaches have included recombinant protein, nucleic acid and cell-based strategies, and anti-PSMA immune responses have been demonstrated in the absence of significant toxicity. Therapy with drug-conjugated and radiolabeled antibodies has yielded objective clinical responses as measured by reductions in serum prostate-specific antigen and/or imageable tumor volume. However, responses were observed in a minor fraction of patients and at doses near the maximum tolerated dose. Overall, these initial studies have provided measured proof of concept for PSMA-based therapies, and second-generation antibody and vaccine products may hold the key to exploit PSMA for molecularly targeted therapy of prostate and other cancers.Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials 10/2007; 2(3):182-90.
Article: Relations of glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) polymorphisms to folate and homocysteine concentrations and to scores of cognition, anxiety, and depression in a homogeneous Norwegian population: the Hordaland Homocysteine Study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) encodes for intestinal folate hydrolase and brain N-acetylated alpha-linked acidic dipeptidase. Previous studies provided conflicting results on the effect of the GCPII 1561C-->T polymorphism on folate and total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations. We aimed to determine the potential effects of 2 polymorphisms of GCPII on plasma folate and tHcy concentrations, cognition, anxiety, and depression in a large aging cohort of Norwegians enrolled in the Hordaland Homocysteine Study. DNA samples were genotyped for the GCPII 1561C-->T and 484A-->G polymorphisms, and the results were linked to plasma folate and tHcy concentrations and to scores for cognition, anxiety, and depression. The 2 polymorphisms were in linkage disequilibrium and were associated with concentrations of tHcy. After adjustment for covariates, persons in the CT or combined CT and TT groups of the 1561C-->T polymorphism had higher plasma folate concentrations and lower tHcy concentrations than did those in the CC group. Subjects with the TT genotype had lower Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) scores than did subjects with the CC genotype. Compared with abstainers, moderate alcohol drinkers had higher plasma folate concentrations and higher scores on the Mini Mental State Examination. However, women abstainers with the CT genotype had lower SDMT scores than did abstainers with the CC genotype or moderate drinkers with the CT genotype. The 1561C-->T polymorphism is associated with higher plasma folate and lower tHcy concentrations and with lower SDMT cognitive scores in women who abstain from alcohol.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 08/2007; 86(2):514-21. · 6.67 Impact Factor