Beyond vasodilatation: non-vasomotor roles of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids in the cardiovascular system.
ABSTRACT Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), derived from arachidonic acid by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases, are potent vasodilators that function as endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors in some vascular beds. EETs are rapidly metabolized by soluble epoxide hydrolase to form dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs). Recent reports indicate that EETs have several important non-vasomotor regulatory roles in the cardiovascular system. EETs are potent anti-inflammatory agents and might function as endogenous anti-atherogenic compounds. In addition, EETs and DHETs might stimulate lipid metabolism and regulate insulin sensitivity. Thus, pharmacological inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase might be useful not only for hypertension but also for abating atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome. Finally, although usually protective in the systemic circulation, EETs might adversely affect the pulmonary circulation.
- SourceAvailable from: John R Falck[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P-450 epoxygenases metabolize arachidonic acid (AA) to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). EETs relax vascular smooth muscle by membrane hyperpolarization. 14,15-Epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid (14,15-EE5ZE) antagonizes many vascular actions of EETs. EETs are converted to the corresponding dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). sEH activity in the bovine arterial endothelium and smooth muscle regulates endogenous EETs. This study examined sEH metabolism of 14,15-EE5ZE to 14,15-dihydroxy-eicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid (14,15-DHE5ZE) and the resultant consequences on EET relaxations of bovine coronary arteries (BCAs). BCAs converted 14,15-EE5ZE to 14,15-DHE5ZE. This conversion was blocked by the sEH inhibitor 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA). 14,15-EET relaxations (maximal relaxation, 83.4 ± 4.5%) were inhibited by 14,15-DHE5ZE (10 μM; maximal relaxation, 36.1 ± 9.0%; p < 0.001). In sharp contrast with 14,15-EE5ZE, 14,15-DHE5ZE is a 14,15-EET-selective inhibitor and did not inhibit 5,6-, 8,9-, or 11,12-EET relaxations. 14,15-EET and 11,12-EET relaxations were similar in the presence and absence of AUDA (1 μM). 14,15-EE5ZE inhibited 14,15-EET relaxations to a similar extent with and without AUDA pretreatment. However, 14,15-EE5ZE inhibited 11,12-EET relaxations to a greater extent with than without AUDA pretreatment. These observations indicate that sEH converts 14,15-EE5ZE to 14,15-DHE5ZE, and this alteration influences antagonist selectivity against EET-regioisomers. 14,15-DHE5ZE inhibited endothelium-dependent relaxations to AA but not endothelium-independent relaxations to sodium nitroprusside. A series of sEH-resistant ether analogs of 14,15-EE5ZE was developed, and analogs with agonist and antagonist properties were identified. The present study indicates that conversion of 14,15-EE5ZE to 14,15-DHE5ZE produces a 14,15-EET-selective antagonist that will be a useful pharmacological tool to identify EET receptor(s) and EET function in the cardiovascular system.Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 09/2010; 336(1):47-55. DOI:10.1124/jpet.110.169797 · 3.86 Impact Factor
Conference Paper: Poly-silicon thin layer photodetector structures[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A photodetector structure based on thin poly-Si layers together with technological process and structure optoelectronic characterisation are presented. The optical improvement of the structure by the reflection of unabsorbed radiation on the backside and by the reflectance minimizing on the topside by antireflecting coating was analyzed. The structure optoelectronic characterization revealed a good sensibility of 60 μA/klx and a fast response.Semiconductor Conference, 2003. CAS 2003. International; 01/2003