Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and type 2 diabetes.

The Centre of Inflammation and Metabolism, Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Diabetologia (Impact Factor: 6.88). 03/2007; 50(2):431-8. DOI: 10.1007/s00125-006-0537-4
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and depression. These disorders are associated with type 2 diabetes, and animal models suggest that BDNF plays a role in insulin resistance. We therefore explored whether BDNF plays a role in human glucose metabolism.
We included (Study 1) 233 humans divided into four groups depending on presence or absence of type 2 diabetes and presence or absence of obesity; and (Study 2) seven healthy volunteers who underwent both a hyperglycaemic and a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp.
Plasma levels of BDNF in Study 1 were decreased in humans with type 2 diabetes independently of obesity. Plasma BDNF was inversely associated with fasting plasma glucose, but not with insulin. No association was found between the BDNF G196A (Val66Met) polymorphism and diabetes or obesity. In Study 2 an output of BDNF from the human brain was detected at basal conditions. This output was inhibited when blood glucose levels were elevated. In contrast, when plasma insulin was increased while maintaining normal blood glucose, the cerebral output of BDNF was not inhibited, indicating that high levels of glucose, but not insulin, inhibit the output of BDNF from the human brain.
Low levels of BDNF accompany impaired glucose metabolism. Decreased BDNF may be a pathogenetic factor involved not only in dementia and depression, but also in type 2 diabetes, potentially explaining the clustering of these conditions in epidemiological studies.

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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes associated depression is a largely understudied field which nonetheless carries a significant disease burden. The very low therapeutic efficacy of the existing conventional drugs with poor outcome may be, in part, due to uncertainty of the mechanism involved that clearly explains the existing comorbidity. The main purpose of this review was to address the sophisticated mechanisms of this comorbidity with a view of developing potential novel targets with higher efficacy and specificity. Data were collected from database searches including PubMed, references from relevant English language research/review articles and other official publications. Articles from 1990 to 2013 were included, and a broad search term criteria were followed for data mining so that relevant information was not missed out. Some of the search terms used included; diabetes-induced depression, diabetes and serotonin, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and diabetes and glucocorticoids in diabetes. Neuropathologically, depletion of brain monoaminergic activity specifically the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) system, due to chronically persisting diabetic state may lead to the mood and behavioral complications that further add on worsening the quality life years. The 5-HT system through multifunctional tasks regulates neurogenesis and plasticity and by complex receptor mechanism controls the emotional and behavioral activity. Persisting hyperglycemia leads to impaired neurogenesis, decreased synaptic plasticity, undesired neuro-anatomical alterations, neurochemical deficits, and reduced neurotransmitter activity. The neurotrophic factors and secondary messenger functions affected at molecular and genetic levels indicate the impact of diabetes-mediated dysregulation on neuronal circuits. HPA activity, glycogen synthase kinase 3, and insulin signaling controls were also found to be hampered, interlinked to 5-HT system following diabetic progression.
    Indian Journal of Pharmacology 01/2015; 47(1):4-10. DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.150305 · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Aim. Studies have suggested that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a role in glucose and lipid metabolism and inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum BDNF levels and various metabolic parameters and inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Materials and Methods. The study included 88 T2DM patients and 33 healthy controls. Fasting blood samples were obtained from the patients and the control group. The serum levels of BDNF were measured with an ELISA kit. The current paper introduces a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) generalization curve to identify cut-off for the BDNF values in type 2 diabetes patients. Results. The serum levels of BDNF were significantly higher in T2DM patients than in the healthy controls (206.81 ± 107.32 pg/mL versus 130.84 ± 59.81 pg/mL; P < 0.001). They showed a positive correlation with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (r = 0.28; P < 0.05), the triglyceride level (r = 0.265; P < 0.05), and white blood cell (WBC) count (r = 0.35; P < 0.001). In logistic regression analysis, age (P < 0.05), body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.05), C-reactive protein (CRP) (P < 0.05), and BDNF (P < 0.01) were independently associated with T2DM. In ROC curve analysis, BDNF cut-off was 137. Conclusion. The serum BDNF level was higher in patients with T2DM. The BDNF had a cut-off value of 137. The findings suggest that BDNF may contribute to glucose and lipid metabolism and inflammation.

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