Article

NovelFGFR1 sequence variants in Kallmann syndrome, and genetic evidence that the FGFR1c isoform is required in olfactory bulb and palate morphogenesis

Institut Cochin, Inserm U567, Université René Descartes, Paris, France.
Human Mutation (Impact Factor: 5.05). 01/2007; 28(1):97-8. DOI: 10.1002/humu.9470
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In a new cohort of 141 unrelated patients affected by Kallmann syndrome we identified FGFR1 sequence variants in 17 patients, all in the heterozygous state. The fifteen novel variants consist of 10 missense (p.N77K, p.C101F, p.R250W, p.G270D, p.P283R, p.S332C, p.H621R, p.S685F, p.I693F, p.R822C), two nonsense (p.E324X, p.R661X), a frameshift (p.S439fs), and two splice site (c.1081G>C and c.1977+1G>A) changes. However, the p.N77K and p.R822C changes were also found in two and one out of 150 healthy control individuals, respectively, and therefore, their pathogenic effect is questionable. Notably, three alterations (p.E324X, p.S332C, c.1081G>C) are located in the alternative exon 8B that codes for the FGFR1c isoform, thus indicating that this isoform plays a crucial role in the development of the olfactory system in man. Moreover, the presence of cleft palate in a patient carrying the p.E324X change shows that FGFR1c is important for palate morphogenesis too.

0 Followers
 · 
84 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Men with Kallmann syndrome (KS) and those with congenital isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with normal olfaction share a chronic, usually profound deficit, in FSH and LH, the two pituitary gonadotropins. Many studies indicate that this gonadotropin deficiency is already present during fetal life, thus explaining the micropenis, cryptorchidism and marked testicular hypotrophy already present at birth. In addition, neonatal activation of gonadotropin secretion is compromised in boys with severe CHH/Kallmann, preventing the first phase of postnatal testicular activation. Finally, CHH is characterized by the persistence, in the vast majority of cases, of gonadotropin deficiency at the time of puberty and during adulthood. This prevents the normal pubertal testicular reactivation required for physiological sex steroid and testicular peptide production, and for spermatogenesis. CHH/KS thus represents a pathological paradigm that can help to unravel, in vivo, the role of each gonadotropin in human testicular exocrine and endocrine functions at different stages of development. Recombinant gonadotropins with pure LH or FSH activity have been used to stimulate Leydig's cells and Sertoli's cells, respectively, and thereby to clarify their paracrine interaction in vivo. The effects of these pharmacological probes can be assessed by measuring the changes they provoke in circulating testicular hormone concentrations. This review discusses the impact of chronic gonadotropin deficiency on the endocrine functions of the interstitial compartment, which contains testosterone-, estradiol- and INSL3-secreting Leydig's cells. It also examines the regulation of inhibin B and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) secretion in the seminiferous tubules, and the insights provided by studies of human testicular stimulation with recombinant gonadotropins, used either individually or in combination.
    Annales d Endocrinologie 05/2014; 75(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ando.2014.04.011 · 0.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: R1a-M420 is one of the most widely spread Y-chromosome haplogroups; however, its substructure within Europe and Asia has remained poorly characterized. Using a panel of 16 244 male subjects from 126 populations sampled across Eurasia, we identified 2923 R1a-M420 Y-chromosomes and analyzed them to a highly granular phylogeographic resolution. Whole Y-chromosome sequence analysis of eight R1a and five R1b individuals suggests a divergence time of ∼25 000 (95% CI: 21 300-29 000) years ago and a coalescence time within R1a-M417 of ∼5800 (95% CI: 4800-6800) years. The spatial frequency distributions of R1a sub-haplogroups conclusively indicate two major groups, one found primarily in Europe and the other confined to Central and South Asia. Beyond the major European versus Asian dichotomy, we describe several younger sub-haplogroups. Based on spatial distributions and diversity patterns within the R1a-M420 clade, particularly rare basal branches detected primarily within Iran and eastern Turkey, we conclude that the initial episodes of haplogroup R1a diversification likely occurred in the vicinity of present-day Iran.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 26 March 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.50.
    European journal of human genetics: EJHG 03/2014; DOI:10.1038/ejhg.2014.50 · 4.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bone morphogenic protein-4 (BMP4) and fibroblast growth factor-8 (FGF8) are thought to have opposite roles in defining epithelial versus neurogenic fate in the developing olfactory/vomeronasal system. In particular, FGF8 has been implicated in specification of olfactory and gonadotropin releasing hormone-1 (GnRH) neurons, as well as in controlling olfactory stem cell survival. Using different knock-in mouse lines and Cre-lox-mediated lineage tracing, Fgf8 expression and cell lineage was analyzed in the developing nose in relation to the expression of Bmp4 and its antagonist Noggin (Nog). FGF8 is expressed by cells that acquire an epidermal, respiratory cell fate and not by stem cells that acquire neuronal olfactory or vomeronasal cell fate. Ectodermal and mesenchymal sources of BMP4 control the expression of BMP/TGFβ antagonist Nog, whereas mesenchymal sources of Nog define the neurogenic borders of the olfactory pit. Fgf8 hypomorph mouse models, Fgf8(neo/neo) and Fgf8(neo/null), displayed severe craniofacial defects together with overlapping defects in the olfactory pit including (1) lack of neuronal formation ventrally, where GnRH neurons normally form, and (2) altered expression of Bmp4 and Nog, with Nog ectopically expressed in the nasal mesenchyme and no longer defining the GnRH and vomeronasal neurogenic border. Together our data show that (1) FGF8 is not sufficient to induce ectodermal progenitors of the olfactory pit to acquire neural fate and (2) altered neurogenesis and lack of GnRH neuron specification after chronically reduced Fgf8 expression reflected dysgenesis of the nasal region and loss of a specific neurogenic permissive milieu that was defined by mesenchymal signals.
    The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 12/2013; 33(50):19620-19634. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3238-13.2013 · 6.75 Impact Factor