NovelFGFR1 sequence variants in Kallmann syndrome, and genetic evidence that the FGFR1c isoform is required in olfactory bulb and palate morphogenesis
ABSTRACT In a new cohort of 141 unrelated patients affected by Kallmann syndrome we identified FGFR1 sequence variants in 17 patients, all in the heterozygous state. The fifteen novel variants consist of 10 missense (p.N77K, p.C101F, p.R250W, p.G270D, p.P283R, p.S332C, p.H621R, p.S685F, p.I693F, p.R822C), two nonsense (p.E324X, p.R661X), a frameshift (p.S439fs), and two splice site (c.1081G>C and c.1977+1G>A) changes. However, the p.N77K and p.R822C changes were also found in two and one out of 150 healthy control individuals, respectively, and therefore, their pathogenic effect is questionable. Notably, three alterations (p.E324X, p.S332C, c.1081G>C) are located in the alternative exon 8B that codes for the FGFR1c isoform, thus indicating that this isoform plays a crucial role in the development of the olfactory system in man. Moreover, the presence of cleft palate in a patient carrying the p.E324X change shows that FGFR1c is important for palate morphogenesis too.
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ABSTRACT: Single amino acid substitutions in Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 (FGFR1) destabilize protein and have been implicated in several genetic disorders like various forms of cancer, Kallamann syndrome, Pfeiffer syn-drome, Jackson Weiss syndrome, etc. In order to gain functional insight into mutation caused by amino acid substitution to protein function and expression, special emphasis was laid on molecular dynamics simulation techniques in combination with in silico tools such as SIFT, PolyPhen 2.0, I-Mutant 3.0 and SNAP. It has been estimated that 68% nsSNPs were predicted to be deleterious by I-Mutant, slightly higher than SIFT (37%), PolyPhen 2.0 (61%) and SNAP (58%). From the observed results, P722S mutation was found to be most dele-terious by comparing results of all in silico tools. By molecular dynamics approach, we have shown that P722S mutation leads to increase in flexibility, and deviated more from the native structure which was supported by the decrease in the number of hydrogen bonds. In addition, biophysical analysis revealed a clear insight of stability loss due to P722S mutation in FGFR1 protein. Majority of mutations predicted by these in silico tools were in good concordance with the experimental results.06/2012; 1:37-43. DOI:10.1016/j.atg.2012.06.002
- Tribology and Interface Engineering Series 01/1996; 31:377-385. DOI:10.1016/S0167-8922(08)70799-5
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ABSTRACT: Nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate (NS CLP) is a complex birth defect resulting from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Several members of the FGF and FGFR families are expressed during craniofacial development and can rarely harbor mutations that result in human clefting syndromes. We hypothesized that disruptions in this pathway might also contribute to NS CLP. We sequenced the coding regions and performed association testing on 12 genes (FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, FGF2, FGF3, FGF4, FGF7, FGF8, FGF9, FGF10, FGF18, and NUDT6) and used protein structure analyses to predict the function of amino acid variants. Seven likely disease-causing mutations were identified, including: one nonsense mutation (R609X) in FGFR1, a de novo missense mutation (D73H) in FGF8, and other missense variants in FGFR1, FGFR2, and FGFR3. Structural analysis of FGFR1, FGFR2, and FGF8 variants suggests that these mutations would impair the function of the proteins, albeit through different mechanisms. Genotyping of SNPs in the genes found associations between NS CLP and SNPs in FGF3, FGF7, FGF10, FGF18, and FGFR1. The data suggest that the FGF signaling pathway may contribute to as much as 3-5% of NS CLP and will be a consideration in the clinical management of CLP.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2007; 104(11):4512-7. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0607956104 · 9.81 Impact Factor