Karl Fischer titration and coulometry for measurement of water content in small cartilage specimens.
ABSTRACT This study evaluated the efficiency of Karl Fischer titration and coulometry for measurement of water content in small intact and defective cartilage specimens. Cartilage from the main weight-bearing zone of the medial condyle of 38 fresh sheep knees was used. Of these, 20 condyles had an intact cartilage, while defects (14 grade I and 4 grade II) were found in the rest. The mechanical hardness was determined as Shore A. Cartilage specimens of approximately 5 mg were analyzed in special devices for moisture measurement and then continuously heated up to 105 degrees C. The actual measurement was performed in an electric cell (coulometry). An electrode was laminated with hygroscopic phosphorus pentoxide. In the electrochemical reaction, H and O are liberated from the electrode. The requirement for electric energy correlates with the amount of water in the specimen. The water content in intact cartilage was 66.9%. Grade I (72.6%) and grade II (77.8%) defects had significantly higher water content. Significantly higher and faster spontaneous evaporation was observed in cartilage defects at room temperature. The water content and spontaneous water evaporation correlated with significantly lower mechanical hardness. The experimental design (combined method of thermogravimetry, Karl Fischer titration, and coulometry) was sufficient for evaluating the water content in small cartilage specimens. It is also possible to measure the temperature-dependent water liberation from cartilage specimens.
- SourceAvailable from: ncbi.nlm.nih.govJournal of Clinical Investigation 08/1966; 45(7):1170-7. · 12.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The biomechanical response of articular cartilage to a wide range of impact loading rates was investigated for stress magnitudes that exist during joint trauma. Viable, intact bovine cartilage explants were impacted in confined compression with stress rates of 25, 50, 130 and 1000 MPa/s and stress magnitudes of 10, 20, 30 and 40 MPa. Water loss, cell viability, dynamic impact modulus (DIM) and matrix deformation were measured. Under all loading conditions the water loss was small (approximately 15%); water loss increased linearly with increasing peak stress and decreased exponentially with increasing stress rate. Cell death was localized within the superficial zone (< or =12% of total tissue thickness); the depth of cell death from the articular surface increased with peak stress and decreased with increasing stress rate. The DIM increased (200-700 MPa) and matrix deformation decreased with increasing stress rate. Initial water and proteoglycan (PG) content had a weak, yet significant influence on water loss, cell death and DIM. However, the significance of the inhomogeneous structure and composition of the cartilage matrix was accentuated when explants impacted on the deep zone had less water loss and matrix deformation, higher DIM, and no cell death compared to explants impacted on the articular surface. The mechano-biological response of articular cartilage depended on magnitude and rate of impact loading.Journal of Biomechanics 04/2005; 38(3):493-502. · 2.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hyaline cartilage contains five well-characterized proteoglycans in its extracellular matrix, and it is likely that others exist. The largest in size and most abundant by weight is aggrecan, a proteoglycan that possesses over 100 chondroitin sulfate and keratan sulfate chains. Aggrecan is also characterized by its ability to interact with hyaluronic acid to form large proteoglycan aggregates. Both the high anionic charge on the individual aggrecan molecules endowed by the sulfated glycosaminoglycan chains and the localization within the matrix endowed by aggregate formation are essential for aggrecan function. The molecule provides cartilage with its osmotic properties, which give articular cartilage its ability to resist compressive loads. The other proteoglycans are characterized by their ability to interact with collagen. They are much smaller than aggrecan in size but may be present in similar molar amounts. Decorin, biglycan, and fibromodulin are closely related in protein structure but differ in glycosaminoglycan composition and function. Decorin and biglycan possess one and two dermatan sulfate chains, respectively, whereas fibromodulin bears several keratan sulfate chains. Decorin and fibromodulin both interact with the type II collagen fibrils in the matrix and may play a role in fibrillogenesis and interfibril interactions. Biglycan is preferentially localized in the pericellular matrix, where it may interact with type VI collagen. Finally, type IX collagen can also be considered as a proteoglycan, as its alpha 2(IX) chain may bear a glycosaminoglycan chain. It may serve as a bridge between the collagen fibrils or with the interspersed aggrecan network.Microscopy Research and Technique 09/1994; 28(5):385-97. · 1.59 Impact Factor