Large-scale production of embryonic red blood cells from human embryonic stem cells.
ABSTRACT To develop a method to produce in culture large number of erythroid cells from human embryonic stem cells.
Human H1 embryonic stem cells were differentiated into hematopoietic cells by coculture with a human fetal liver cell line, and the resulting CD34-positive cells were expanded in vitro in liquid culture using a three-step method. The erythroid cells produced were then analyzed by light microscopy and flow cytometry. Globin expression was characterized by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and by high-performance liquid chromatography.
CD34-positive cells produced from human embryonic stem cells could be efficiently differentiated into erythroid cells in liquid culture leading to a more than 5000-fold increase in cell number. The erythroid cells produced are similar to primitive erythroid cells present in the yolk sac of early human embryos and did not enucleate. They are fully hemoglobinized and express a mixture of embryonic and fetal globins but no beta-globin.
We have developed an experimental protocol to produce large numbers of primitive erythroid cells starting from undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells. As the earliest human erythroid cells, the nucleated primitive erythroblasts, are not very well characterized because experimental material at this stage of development is very difficult to obtain, this system should prove useful to answer a number of experimental questions regarding the biology of these cells. In addition, production of mature red blood cells from human embryonic stem cells is of great potential practical importance because it could eventually become an alternate source of cell for transfusion.
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ABSTRACT: Differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into the erythroid lineage of cells offers a novel opportunity to study erythroid development, regulation of globin switching, drug testing, and modeling of red blood cell (RBC) diseases in vitro. Here we describe an approach for the efficient generation of RBCs from hiPSC/hESCs using an OP9 coculture system to induce hematopoietic differentiation followed by selective expansion of erythroid cells in serum-free media with erythropoiesis-supporting cytokines. We showed that fibroblast-derived transgenic hiPSCs generated using lentivirus-based vectors and transgene-free hiPSCs generated using episomal vectors can be differentiated into RBCs with an efficiency similar to that of H1 hESCs. Erythroid cultures established with this approach consisted of an essentially pure population of CD235a(+)CD45(-) leukocyte-free RBCs with robust expansion potential and long life span (up to 90 days). Similar to hESCs, hiPSC-derived RBCs expressed predominately fetal gamma and embryonic varepsilon globins, indicating complete reprogramming of beta-globin locus following transition of fibroblasts to the pluripotent state. Although beta-globin expression was detected in hiPSC/hESC-derived erythroid cells, its expression was substantially lower than the embryonic and fetal globins. Overall, these results demonstrate the feasibility of large-scale production of erythroid cells from fibroblast-derived hiPSCs, as has been described for hESCs. Since RBCs generated from transgene-free hiPSCs lack genomic integration and background expression of reprogramming genes, they would be a preferable cell source for modeling of diseases and for gene function studies.Stem cells and development 03/2011; 20(9):1639-47. · 4.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The discovery of methods to convert somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) through expression of a small combination of transcription factors has raised the possibility of producing custom-tailored cells for the study and treatment of numerous diseases. Indeed, iPSCs have already been derived from patients suffering from a large variety of disorders. Here we review recent progress that has been made in establishing iPSC-based disease models, discuss associated technical and biological challenges, and highlight possible solutions to overcome these barriers. We believe that a better understanding of the molecular basis of pluripotency, cellular reprogramming and lineage-specific differentiation of iPSCs is necessary for progress in regenerative medicine.Nature Cell Biology 05/2011; 13(5):497-505. · 19.49 Impact Factor
Article: Generation and characterization of erythroid cells from human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells: an overview.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Because of the imbalance in the supply and demand of red blood cells (RBCs), especially for alloimmunized patients or patients with rare blood phenotypes, extensive research has been done to generate therapeutic quantities of mature RBCs from hematopoietic stem cells of various sources, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, and cord blood. Since human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be maintained indefinitely in vitro, they represent potentially inexhaustible sources of donor-free RBCs. In contrast to other ex vivo stem-cell-derived cellular therapeutics, tumorigenesis is not a concern, as RBCs can be irradiated without marked adverse effects on in vivo function. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the recent publications relevant to the generation and characterization of hESC- and iPSC-derived erythroid cells and discuss challenges to be met before the eventual realization of clinical usage of these cells.Stem cells international. 01/2011; 2011:791604.