Welch AA, Bingham SA, Ive J, Friesen MD, Wareham NJ, Riboli E et al.. Dietary fish intake and plasma phospholipid n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk United Kingdom cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 84, 1330-1339

Department of Public Health and Primary Care and the Clinical Gerontology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 01/2007; 84(6):1330-9.
Source: PubMed


The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, found in fish and fish-oil supplements and also formed by conversion of alpha-linolenic acid in soy and rapeseed (canola) oils, are thought to have cardioprotective effects.
Because the relative feasibility and measurement error of dietary methods varies, this study compared fish and fish-oil intakes obtained from 4 dietary methods with plasma n-3 PUFAs in men and women in a general population.
The study participants were 4949 men and women aged 40-79 y from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk United Kingdom cohort. Measurements of plasma phospholipid n-3 PUFA concentrations and fish intakes were made with the use of 4 dietary methods (food-frequency questionnaire, health and lifestyle questionnaire, 7-d diary, and first-day recall from the 7-d diary).
Amounts of fish consumed and relations with plasma phospholipid n-3 PUFAs were not substantially different between the 4 dietary methods. Plasma n-3 PUFA concentrations were significantly higher in women than in men, were 20% higher in fish-oil consumers than in non-fish-oil consumers, and were twice as high in fatty fish consumers as in total fish consumers. Only approximately 25% of the variation in plasma n-3 PUFA was explained by fish and fish-oil consumption.
This large study found no substantial differences between dietary methods and observed clear sex differences in plasma n-3 PUFAs. Because variation in n-3 PUFA was only partially determined by fish and fish-oil consumption, this could explain the inconsistent results of observational and intervention studies on coronary artery disease protection.

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    • "Reductions in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake, which is especially important for brain development of fetuses, newborns, toddlers, and children, are most critical (Kris-Etherton et al. 2002; Lee et al. 2009). Because up to 25% of omega-3 PUFAs are taken up with fish (Welch et al. 2006), markedly reducing fish consumption would also reduce their intake significantly. "
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    ABSTRACT: Because human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) mainly occurs through ingestion of contaminated food, regulatory bodies issue dietary consumption advisories to describe safe intake levels for food items of concern, particularly fish. Our study goal was to estimate the effectiveness of fish consumption advisories in reducing exposure of infants and children to POPs. We used the time-variant mechanistic model CoZMoMAN to estimate and compare prenatal, postnatal, and childhood exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl congener PCB-153 under different scenarios of maternal guideline adherence for both hypothetical constant and realistic time-variant chemical emissions. The scenarios differed in term of length of compliance (1 vs. 5 years), extent of fish substitution (all vs. half), and replacement diet (uncontaminated produce vs. beef). We also estimated potential exposure reductions for a range of theoretical chemicals to explore how guideline effectiveness varies with a chemical's partitioning and degradation properties. When assuming realistic time periods of advisory compliance, our findings suggest that temporarily eliminating or reducing maternal fish consumption is largely ineffective in reducing pre- and postnatal exposure to substances with long elimination half-lives in humans, especially during periods of decreasing environmental emissions. Substituting fish with beef may actually result in higher exposure to certain groups of environmental contaminants. On the other hand, advisories may be highly effective in reducing exposure to substances with elimination half-lives in humans shorter than the length of compliance. Our model estimates suggest that fish consumption advisories are unlikely to be effective in reducing prenatal, postnatal, and childhood exposures to compounds with long elimination half-lives in humans.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 12/2013; 122(2). DOI:10.1289/ehp.1206380 · 7.98 Impact Factor
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    • "Although strong evidence supports fish consumption as a source for omega-3 FA intake, notable differences exist between marine and freshwater fish. Indeed, many studies have shown that the magnitude of the relation between fish intake and omega-3 levels in blood varies substantially [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14]. Most of our knowledge on the relation between fish consumption and omega-3 FAs was obtained from populations with high levels of consumption of marine fish, such as Inuit, Scandinavian and Japanese populations [1] [2] [4] [5] [8] [10] [13] [15] [16] [17]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Amazonian riverside communities consume large quantities of freshwater fish, comparable to marine fish consumption of Inuit, Scandinavian and Japanese populations. Few studies have considered the relation of high fresh- water fish consumption and intake of omega-3 fatty acids (FA). Objective: The objective of the present study was to determine the profile of the concentrations of plasma phospholipid FAs and its relation with freshwater fish intake in 12 riverside communities in the Tapajós River basin (State of Pará, Brazilian Amazon). Design: This cross-sectional study included 333 adults (15 - 86 years old). Fish meal frequency was determined using a 7-day interview-administered die- tary recall questionnaire. Fish were categorized as piscivorous and non-piscivorous fish on trophic level. Plasma phos- pholipid FAs were measured by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. Results: Participants consumed 5 to 6 fish meals a week, with twice as many non-piscivorous fish than piscivorous fish (4.4 fish/week vs 2.2 fish/week, respectively). The omega-3 FA levels in plasma phospholipids were low (EPA + DHA = 31.21 mg/L; %EPA + DHA = 2.59%). Omega-3 FAs increased with frequency of fish intake, and particularly with piscivorous fish, controlling for socio- demographic, anthropometric and lifestyle characteristics. DHA levels were greater in women than in men. Conclu-sions: Omega-3 FA in this Amazonian population increased with fish consumption, but although they consumed fresh-water fish almost daily, the concentrations of omega-3 FA were relatively low and comparable to fish-eater communi-ties for which fish is not a dietary mainstay. It is possible that nutrients present in marine, but not in certain freshwater fish species, may facilitate absorption of omega-3 FA. Sex and/or gender differences must be taken into account when assessing the relationship between fish consumption and plasma phospholipid omega-3 FA levels.
    Food and Nutrition Sciences 09/2013; 4(9A):137-149. DOI:10.4236/fns.2013.49A1021
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    • "It must also be noted that there is a significant commercial fishery for both Great Lakes lake trout and whitefish (Kinnunen, 2011). While consumption of fatty fish has been correlated with serum levels of omega-3 fatty acids (Welch et al., 2006), the relationship of Great Lakes fish consumption to omega-3 fatty acid levels in serum is unclear. No correlation between Great Lakes/St. "
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    ABSTRACT: Fish are an excellent source of lean protein and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) but there is inade-quate information on the levels of PUFAs in freshwater fish and specifically Great Lakes fish. Knowledge of PUFAs is necessary to make informed decisions regarding the balance between the benefits of fish consumption due to these factors versus risks of adverse health effects associated with elevated levels of contaminants known to be present in some Great Lakes fish and linked to increased risk of cancer and adverse neurological effects to both infants and adults. Our goal was to determine the lipid profiles in two species of Great Lakes fish, lake trout and whitefish. Total fat and the percentage of total and omega-3 PUFAs were with one exception significantly higher in lake trout than whitefish. Average concentrations of EPA+DHA were 11.2 and 9.7 g/100 g lipid in lake trout and whitefish, respectively. The concentrations of EPA+DHA in fatty marine fish (22.7, 23.9 and 30.2 g/100 g lipid, respectively) are about double those found in Great Lakes lake trout and whitefish. Nevertheless a 100 g serving of Great Lakes lake trout provides more than 500 mg of EPA+DHA, which is the daily intake level recommended by the American Dietetics Association for the prevention of coronary heart disease.
    Journal of Great Lakes Research 02/2013; 39(1):120-127. DOI:10.1016/j.jglr.2012.12.012 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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