Dietary fish intake and plasma phospholipid n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk United Kingdom cohort

Department of Public Health and Primary Care and the Clinical Gerontology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.92). 01/2007; 84(6):1330-9.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, found in fish and fish-oil supplements and also formed by conversion of alpha-linolenic acid in soy and rapeseed (canola) oils, are thought to have cardioprotective effects.
Because the relative feasibility and measurement error of dietary methods varies, this study compared fish and fish-oil intakes obtained from 4 dietary methods with plasma n-3 PUFAs in men and women in a general population.
The study participants were 4949 men and women aged 40-79 y from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk United Kingdom cohort. Measurements of plasma phospholipid n-3 PUFA concentrations and fish intakes were made with the use of 4 dietary methods (food-frequency questionnaire, health and lifestyle questionnaire, 7-d diary, and first-day recall from the 7-d diary).
Amounts of fish consumed and relations with plasma phospholipid n-3 PUFAs were not substantially different between the 4 dietary methods. Plasma n-3 PUFA concentrations were significantly higher in women than in men, were 20% higher in fish-oil consumers than in non-fish-oil consumers, and were twice as high in fatty fish consumers as in total fish consumers. Only approximately 25% of the variation in plasma n-3 PUFA was explained by fish and fish-oil consumption.
This large study found no substantial differences between dietary methods and observed clear sex differences in plasma n-3 PUFAs. Because variation in n-3 PUFA was only partially determined by fish and fish-oil consumption, this could explain the inconsistent results of observational and intervention studies on coronary artery disease protection.

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    • "Although strong evidence supports fish consumption as a source for omega-3 FA intake, notable differences exist between marine and freshwater fish. Indeed, many studies have shown that the magnitude of the relation between fish intake and omega-3 levels in blood varies substantially [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14]. Most of our knowledge on the relation between fish consumption and omega-3 FAs was obtained from populations with high levels of consumption of marine fish, such as Inuit, Scandinavian and Japanese populations [1] [2] [4] [5] [8] [10] [13] [15] [16] [17]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Amazonian riverside communities consume large quantities of freshwater fish, comparable to marine fish consumption of Inuit, Scandinavian and Japanese populations. Few studies have considered the relation of high fresh- water fish consumption and intake of omega-3 fatty acids (FA). Objective: The objective of the present study was to determine the profile of the concentrations of plasma phospholipid FAs and its relation with freshwater fish intake in 12 riverside communities in the Tapajós River basin (State of Pará, Brazilian Amazon). Design: This cross-sectional study included 333 adults (15 - 86 years old). Fish meal frequency was determined using a 7-day interview-administered die- tary recall questionnaire. Fish were categorized as piscivorous and non-piscivorous fish on trophic level. Plasma phos- pholipid FAs were measured by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. Results: Participants consumed 5 to 6 fish meals a week, with twice as many non-piscivorous fish than piscivorous fish (4.4 fish/week vs 2.2 fish/week, respectively). The omega-3 FA levels in plasma phospholipids were low (EPA + DHA = 31.21 mg/L; %EPA + DHA = 2.59%). Omega-3 FAs increased with frequency of fish intake, and particularly with piscivorous fish, controlling for socio- demographic, anthropometric and lifestyle characteristics. DHA levels were greater in women than in men. Conclu-sions: Omega-3 FA in this Amazonian population increased with fish consumption, but although they consumed fresh-water fish almost daily, the concentrations of omega-3 FA were relatively low and comparable to fish-eater communi-ties for which fish is not a dietary mainstay. It is possible that nutrients present in marine, but not in certain freshwater fish species, may facilitate absorption of omega-3 FA. Sex and/or gender differences must be taken into account when assessing the relationship between fish consumption and plasma phospholipid omega-3 FA levels.
    Food and Nutrition Sciences 09/2013; 4(9A):137-149. DOI:10.4236/fns.2013.49A1021
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    • "It must also be noted that there is a significant commercial fishery for both Great Lakes lake trout and whitefish (Kinnunen, 2011). While consumption of fatty fish has been correlated with serum levels of omega-3 fatty acids (Welch et al., 2006), the relationship of Great Lakes fish consumption to omega-3 fatty acid levels in serum is unclear. No correlation between Great Lakes/St. "
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    ABSTRACT: Fish are an excellent source of lean protein and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) but there is inade-quate information on the levels of PUFAs in freshwater fish and specifically Great Lakes fish. Knowledge of PUFAs is necessary to make informed decisions regarding the balance between the benefits of fish consumption due to these factors versus risks of adverse health effects associated with elevated levels of contaminants known to be present in some Great Lakes fish and linked to increased risk of cancer and adverse neurological effects to both infants and adults. Our goal was to determine the lipid profiles in two species of Great Lakes fish, lake trout and whitefish. Total fat and the percentage of total and omega-3 PUFAs were with one exception significantly higher in lake trout than whitefish. Average concentrations of EPA+DHA were 11.2 and 9.7 g/100 g lipid in lake trout and whitefish, respectively. The concentrations of EPA+DHA in fatty marine fish (22.7, 23.9 and 30.2 g/100 g lipid, respectively) are about double those found in Great Lakes lake trout and whitefish. Nevertheless a 100 g serving of Great Lakes lake trout provides more than 500 mg of EPA+DHA, which is the daily intake level recommended by the American Dietetics Association for the prevention of coronary heart disease.
    Journal of Great Lakes Research 02/2013; 39(1):120-127. DOI:10.1016/j.jglr.2012.12.012 · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    • "Nutritional and hormonal factors regulate the extent to which ALA is converted to DHA. Studies from different countries have shown that, under identical nutritional conditions, women have relatively higher DHA in their blood lipids and/or in subcutaneous adipose tissue than men [6] [7] [8] [9]. Moreover, when a single dose tracer of ALA was given to non-deficient young adults, newly labelled upstream metabolite precursors of DHA, 20:5n-3 and 22:5n-3, and newly labelled DHA appeared in the blood lipids of women [10] while only 20:5n-3 and 22:5n-3 were labelled in men [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Hormonal and nutritional factors regulate the metabolism of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). We aimed to determine whether ovarian hormones influence the capacity of rats to synthesize the end-products 22:6n-3 (DHA) and 22:5n-6 (n-6DPA) from their respective dietary precursors (18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6), and can regulate PUFA conversion enzymes gene transcription in brain and/or liver. Females born with a low DHA status were fed from weaning to 8 weeks of age a diet providing both essential precursors, and were concurrently submitted to sham-operated control (SOC) or ovariectomy (OVX) in combination with or without 17β-estradiol (E2) dosed at 8 or 16 μg/day. Relative to SOC, OVX increased the hepatic Δ9-, Δ6- and Δ5-desaturase transcripts and cognate transcription factors (PPARα, PPARγ, RXRα, RARα), but it did not affect LC-PUFA contents in phospholipids. In comparison with SOC and OVX groups, both E2 doses prevented the increase of transcripts, while paradoxically augmenting DHA and n-6DPA in liver phospholipids. Thus, in the liver of rats undergoing ovariectomy, changes of LC-PUFA synthesizing enzyme transcripts and of LC-PUFA proportions were not correlated. In brain, ovariectomy did not modify the transcripts of lipid metabolism genes, but it decreased DHA (-15%) and n-6DPA (-28%). In comparison with SOC and OVX groups, ovariectomized females treated with E2 preserved their status of both LC-PUFA in brain and had increased transcripts of E2 receptor β, PPARδ, RARα and LC-PUFA synthesizing enzymes. In conclusion, E2 sustained the transcription of lipid metabolism genes and proportions of neo-formed DHA and n-6DPA differently in brain and liver.
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