REVIEW Five Rules for the Evolution of Cooperation

Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, and Department of Mathematics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
Science (Impact Factor: 33.61). 01/2007; 314(5805):1560-3. DOI: 10.1126/science.1133755
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cooperation is needed for evolution to construct new levels of organization. Genomes, cells, multicellular organisms, social insects, and human society are all based on cooperation. Cooperation means that selfish replicators forgo some of their reproductive potential to help one another. But natural selection implies competition and therefore opposes cooperation unless a specific mechanism is at work. Here I discuss five mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation: kin selection, direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, network reciprocity, and group selection. For each mechanism, a simple rule is derived that specifies whether natural selection can lead to cooperation.

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Available from: Martin A Nowak, Sep 28, 2015
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    • "In this section, we extend the two-island competition algorithm (CICC) applied in [15] [16] [17] to a multi-island cooperative coevolution (MICCC) algorithm which enforces competition and collaboration between various different suboptimal decompositions that are implemented as islands. Since evolution is a unity of cooperation and opposition [18] [19], competition in a surrounding of limited resources is vital for survival. In competitive coevolution , the individual show its competitive ability through its fitness scores. "
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    ABSTRACT: Problem decomposition is an important attribute of cooperative coevolution that depends on the nature of the problems in terms of separability which is defined by the level of interaction amongst decision variables. Recent work in cooperative coevolution featured competition and collaboration of problem decomposition methods that was implemented as islands in a method known as competitive island cooperative coevolution (CICC). In this paper, a multi-island competitive cooperative coevolution (MICCC) is proposed in which several different problem decompositions are given a chance to compete, collaborate and motivate other islands while converging to a common solution. The performances of MICC using three and five island are evaluated on eight different benchmark functions and are compared with CICC where only two islands were utilized. The results from the experimental analysis show that competition and collaboration of several different island can yield solutions with a quality better than the two-island competition algorithm (CICC) on most complex multi-modal problems.
    International Conference on Neural Information Processing (ICONIP), Istanbul, Turkey; 11/2015
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    • "One of these mechanisms takes place when a group of players interacts repeatedly, in which case each member can condition his or her action on the other players' previous actions at each point in time. This mechanism is known as direct reciprocity (Nowak, 2006) and it is the one implemented here. "
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    ABSTRACT: Evolutionary models of paternal care predict that when female reproductive effort is higher than male reproductive effort, selection might favour the emergence of unconditional male cooperation towards females, even when the latter group does not reciprocate. However, previous models have assumed constant population sizes, so the ecology of interacting individuals and its effects on population dynamics have been neglected. This paper reports an agent-based model that incorporates ecological dynamics into evolutionary game dynamics by allowing populations to vary. As previous models demonstrate, paternal care only evolves when female reproductive effort is higher than that of males, and the optimal strategy for females is to exploit male unconditional cooperation. The model also shows that evolution of this behaviour drives some simulations towards regimes of population growth. Thanks to the evolution of paternal care, females' inter-birth intervals are shortened and causing them to reproduce faster. Thus, it is suggested that the evolution of paternal care in species with differential reproductive effort between sexes could be associated to population growth. Nevertheless, the modelled evolutionary dynamics are stochastic, so differences in reproductive effort are necessary but not sufficient conditions for the evolution of paternal care. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Journal of Theoretical Biology 09/2015; 380:192-202. DOI:10.1016/j.jtbi.2015.05.034 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    • "Sigmund, Nowak and collaborators have studied in several contributions the evolution of cooperation, see e.g. [8] and [9] for some basic information and more references. "
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    DESCRIPTION: We will study a population of individuals playing the infinitely repeated Prisoner's Dilemma under replicator dynamics. The population consists of three kinds of individuals using the following reactive strategies: ALLD (individuals which always defect), ATFT (almost tit-for-tat: individuals which almost always repeat the opponent's last move) and G (generous individuals, which always cooperate when the opponent cooperated in the last move and have a positive probability q of cooperating when they are defected). Our aim is studying in a mathematically rigorous fashion the dynamics of a simplified version for the computer experiment in [Nowak, Sigmund, Nature, 355, pp. 250--53, 1992] involving 100 reactive strategies. We will see that as the generosity degree of the G individuals varies, equilibria (rest points) of the dynamics appear or disappear, and the dynamics changes accordingly. Not only we will prove that the results of the experiment are true in our simplified version, but we will have complete control on the existence or non-existence of the equilbria for the dynamics for all possible values of the parameters, given that ATFT individuals are close enough to TFT. For most values of the parameters the dynamics will be completely determined.
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