Consumption stereotypes and impression management: How you are what you eat

Department of Applied Economics and Management, Cornell University, 110 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801, USA.
Appetite (Impact Factor: 2.69). 06/2007; 48(3):265-77. DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2006.10.008
Source: PubMed


Consumption stereotypes refer to judgments about others based on their food intake. We review the empirical research on stereotypes based on what and how much people eat. The characteristics stereotypically associated with food intake pertain to domains ranging from gender roles and social appeal to health and weight. For example, people who eat "healthy" foods and smaller meals are seen as more feminine; conversely, those who eat "unhealthy" foods and larger meals are seen as more masculine. We further discuss how these stereotypes can be exploited by the eater to convey a particular impression (e.g., femininity, social appeal). Finally, we discuss the ways in which using food intake as an impression-management tactic can lead to chronic food restriction and unhealthy eating habits.

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    • "However, research examining the role of impulsivity in pediatric eating behavior is scarce (Thamotharan et al., 2013). Food items that have been associated with obesity, especially in youth, include sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) (Basu, McKee, Galea, & Stuckler, 2013; Grimes, Riddell, Campbell, & Nowson, 2013; Moreno & Rodríguez, 2007; Mrdjenovic & Levitsky, 2003; Vartanian, Schwarz, & Brownell, 2007). In Norway, which is the setting for the current study, there seem to have been a recent decrease in SSB consumption among 11e13eyear-olds (Stea, Øverby, Klepp, & Bere, 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to explore the process in which impulsivity might influence soft drink consumption in adolescents, addressing potential mediating effects of perceived parental regulation regarding unhealthy eating. A cross-sectional survey was performed among 440 13e15-year-olds in Eastern Norway. The survey questionnaire included measures of impulsivity, six types of maternal and paternal regulation (as perceived by the adolescents), and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). Parallel multiple-mediator analyses were performed to reveal potential mediating effects of perceived parental regulatory behaviors on the association between adolescent impulsivity and SSB consumption. Separate models were run for maternal and paternal regulation. Results from our model analyses (both maternal and paternal models) indicated that all the six measured parental regulatory behaviors jointly acted as mediators on the association between adolescent impulsivity and SSB consumption. However, only perceived maternal and paternal legitimacy of regulation showed a unique contribution to the mediated effect. This finding suggests that adolescents' perception of parental legitimate authority is of particular importance in explaining the relationship between impulsivity and unhealthy eating behaviors in adolescents. Future nutrition interventions targeting adolescents and their parents should take personal factors such as adolescents’ level of impulsivity into account. Ultimately; what may be an appropriate approach to impulsive individuals and their parents may diverge from what may be an appropriate approach to less impulsive individuals and their parents. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Appetite 01/2016; 96:432-442. · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    • "Of course one may argue that, since vegetarians eat less fatty foods and have a lower body mass index (Rizzo, Jaceldo-Siegl, Sabate, & Fraser, 2013), the " vegetarian equals virtuousness " stereotype fits into the positive personality traits attributed to consumers of low-fat diets. Accordingly, consumers of high-fat foods are assigned more negative personality traits (Barker, Tandy, & Stookey, 1999; Stein & Nemeroff, 1995; Vartanian, Herman, & Polivy, 2007). Even after controlling for perceptions of diet healthiness in their analysis, Ruby and Heine (2011) still found that vegetarians are considered as more virtuous compared to omnivores. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this work is to explore the relation between morality and diet choice by investigating how animal and human welfare attitudes and donation behaviors can predict a meat eating versus flexitarian versus vegetarian diet. The results of a survey study (N=299) show that animal health concerns (measured by the Animal Attitude Scale) can predict diet choice. Vegetarians are most concerned, while full-time meat eaters are least concerned, and the contrast between flexitarians and vegetarians is greater than the contrast between flexitarians and full-time meat eaters. With regards to human welfare (measured by the Moral Foundations Questionnaire), results show that attitudes towards human suffering set flexitarians apart from vegetarians and attitudes towards authority and respect distinguish between flexitarians and meat eaters. To conclude, results show that vegetarians donate more often to animal oriented charities than flexitarians and meat eaters, while no differences between the three diet groups occur for donations to human oriented charities.
    Meat Science 01/2015; 99:68–74. DOI:10.1016/j.meatsci.2014.08.011 · 2.62 Impact Factor
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    • "This will lead women to adjust their eating more readily to that of others, leading to increased modeling. There is plentiful evidence that eating minimally allows women to convey an impression of femininity (see Vartanian et al., 2007 for a review), whereas less is known about males' intentions in this regard. Taken together, although there are theoretical reasons why men might be less likely to consider their eating companion's intake as a guide for their own behavior, the empirical data do not provide a clear picture of possible sex differences in the vulnerability to modeling effects on intake. "
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    ABSTRACT: A major determinant of human eating behavior is social modeling, whereby people use the eating of others as guide for what and how much to eat. We review the experimental studies that have independently manipulated the eating behavior of a social referent (either through a live confederate or remotely) and measured either food choice or intake. Sixty-nine eligible experiments (with over 5800 participants) were identified that were published between 1974 and 2014. Speaking to the robustness of the modeling phenomenon, 64 of these studies have found a statistically significant modeling effect, despite substantial diversity in methodology, food type, social context and participant demographics. In reviewing the key findings from these studies, we conclude that there is limited evidence for a moderating effect of hunger, personality, age, or weight or the presence of others (i.e., where the confederate is live vs. remote). There is inconclusive evidence for whether sex, attention, impulsivity and eating goals moderate modeling, and for whether modeling of food choice is as strong as modeling of food intake. Effects with substantial evidence were: modeling is increased when individuals desire to affiliate with the model, or perceive themselves to be similar to the model; modeling is attenuated (but still significant) for healthy-snack foods and meals such as breakfast and lunch, and modeling is at least partially mediated through behavioral mimicry, which occurs without conscious awareness. We discuss evidence suggesting that modeling is motivated by goals of both affiliation and uncertainty-reduction, and outline how these might be theoretically integrated. Finally, we argue for the importance of taking modeling beyond the laboratory and bringing it to bear on the important societal challenges of obesity and disordered eating.
    Appetite 01/2015; 86:3-18. DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2014.08.035 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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