A rapid screening battery to identify frontal dysfunction in patients with ALS
ABSTRACT We studied the relationship between verbal associative fluency, verbal abstract reasoning, and judgment in ALS using a 20-minute screening evaluation. Deficiencies in these measures were found in 20.0%, 18.6%, and 35.7% of patients with limb-onset ALS and in 37.5%, 25.0%, and 60.0% of patients with bulbar-onset ALS. This simple screen identifies deficits that affect discussions of treatment interventions and end-of-life issues.
SourceAvailable from: perweb.firat.edu.tr[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effect of elevated temperature on the mechanical and physical properties of concrete specimens obtained by substituting cement with finely ground pumice (FGP) at proportions of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by weight. To determine the effect of silica fume (SF) additive on the mechanical and physical properties of concrete containing FGP, SF has been added to all series except for the control specimen, which contained 10% cement by weight instead. The specimens were heated in an electric furnace up to 400, 600 and 800°C and kept at these temperatures for one hour. After the specimens were cooled in the furnace, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV), compressive strength and weight loss values were determined. The results demonstrated that adding the mineral admixtures to concrete decreased both unit weight and compressive strength. Additionally, elevating the temperature above 600°C affected the compressive strength such that the weight loss of concrete was more pronounced for concrete mixtures containing both FGP and SF. These results were also supported by scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies.Fire Safety Journal 11/2010; 45(6):385-391. DOI:10.1016/j.firesaf.2010.08.002 · 1.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS) has recently been developed as a fast and easy cognitive screening tool specifically designed for patients with motor impairments in routine clinical use. The German/Swiss-German version of the ECAS was validated in a German-Swiss consortium. One hundred and thirty-six non-demented ALS patients and 160 healthy controls were included in the study. In addition, the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease plus Scale (CERAD plus) were administered to subgroups of patients. Results showed that administration of ECAS was fast (mean 24 min). Similar to the population in the UK version, ALS patients performed significantly worse in the ALS-specific functions (p < 0.001), specifically in the domain of language (p < 0.001), verbal fluency (p = 0.005) and executive functions (p = 0.02), but not for the non-ALS-specific functions. Carers reported behavioural abnormalities in about 30% and psychotic symptoms in 6% of the patients. Compared to ECAS, FAB, MoCA and CERAD were more generic and performance was not adjusted to motor speed. We conclude that the German/Swiss-German version of the ECAS is a fast and easy to administer cognitive screening instrument sensitive for ALS-specific dysfunctions and behaviour change.Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration 10/2014; DOI:10.3109/21678421.2014.959451 · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons, resulting in progressive weak-ness and muscle atrophy. Recent studies suggest that nondemented ALS patients can show selective cognitive impairments, predomi-nantly executive dysfunction, but little is known about the neural basis of these impairments. Oculomotor studies in ALS have described deficits in antisaccade execution, which requires the implementation of a task set that includes inhibition of automatic responses followed by generation of a voluntary action. It has been suggested that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) contributes in this process. Thus, we investigated whether deterioration of executive functions in ALS patients, such as the ability to implement flexible behavior during the antisaccade task, is related to DLPFC dysfunction. While undergoing an fMRI scan, 12 ALS patients and 12 age-matched controls performed an antisaccade task with concurrent eye tracking. We hypothesized that DLPFC deficits would appear during the antisaccade preparation stage, when the task set is being established. ALS patients made more antisaccade direction errors and showed significant reductions in DLPFC activation. In contrast, regions, such as supplementary eye fields and frontal eye fields, showed increased activation that was anticorrelated with the number of errors. The ALS group also showed reduced saccadic latencies that correlated with increased activation across the oculomotor saccade system. These findings suggest that ALS results in deficits in the inhibition of automatic responses that are related to impaired DLPFC activation. However, they also suggest that ALS patients undergo functional changes that partially compensate the neurological impairment.The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 10/2014; 34(43):14260-14271. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1111-14.2014 · 6.75 Impact Factor