Desulfurobacterium atlanticum sp. nov., Desulfurobacterium pacificum sp. nov. and Thermovibrio guaymasensis sp. nov., three thermophilic members of the Desulfurobacteriaceae fam. nov., a deep branching lineage within the Bacteria.

UMR 6197, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, IFREMER and Université de Bretagne Occidentale, IFREMER Centre de Brest, BP 70, 29280 Plouzané, France.
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology (Impact Factor: 2.8). 01/2007; 56(Pt 12):2843-52. DOI: 10.1099/ijs.0.63994-0
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Three thermophilic, anaerobic, strictly chemolithoautotrophic, sulphur- and/or thiosulphate-reducing bacteria, designated SL17(T), SL19(T) and SL22(T), were isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal samples collected at 13 degrees N (East Pacific Rise), Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California) and 23 degrees N (Mid-Atlantic Ridge), respectively. These strains differed in their morphology, temperature range and optimum for growth, energy substrates and 16S rRNA gene sequences. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 41 mol% (SL22(T)), 42 mol% (SL17(T)) and 46 mol% (SL19(T)). Comparative analysis of phenotypic and phylogenetic traits indicated that strains SL17(T) and SL22(T) represented two novel species of the genus Desulfurobacterium and that strain SL19(T) should be considered as a novel species of the genus Thermovibrio. The names Desulfurobacterium pacificum sp. nov. (type strain SL17(T)=DSM 15522(T)=JCM 12127(T)), Desulfurobacterium atlanticum sp. nov. (type strain SL22(T)=DSM 15668(T)=JCM 12129(T)) and Thermovibrio guaymasensis sp. nov. (type strain SL19(T)=DSM 15521(T)=JCM 12128(T)) are proposed for these organisms. Furthermore, phylogenetic data based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses correlated with the significant phenotypic differences between members of the lineage encompassing the genera Desulfurobacterium, Thermovibrio and Balnearium and that of the families Aquificaceae and Hydrogenothermaceae. It is therefore proposed that this lineage represents a new family, Desulfurobacteriaceae fam. nov., within the order Aquificales.

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    ABSTRACT: Lateral gene transfer (LGT) is an important factor contributing to the evolution of prokaryotic genomes. The Aquificae are a hyperthermophilic bacterial group whose genes show affiliations to many other lineages, including the hyperthermophilic Thermotogae, the Proteobacteria, and the Archaea. Previous phylogenomic analyses focused on Aquifex aeolicus identified Thermotogae and Aquificae either as successive early branches or sisters in a rooted bacterial phylogeny, but many phylogenies and cellular traits have suggested a stronger affiliation with the Epsilonproteobacteria. Different scenarios for the evolution of the Aquificae yield different phylogenetic predictions. Here we outline these scenarios and consider the fit of the available data, including three sequenced Aquificae genomes, to different sets of predictions. Evidence from phylogenetic profiles and trees suggests that the Epsilonproteobacteria have the strongest affinities with the three Aquificae analyzed. However, this pattern is shown by only a minority of encoded proteins, and the Archaea, many lineages of thermophilic bacteria, and members of genus Clostridium and class Deltaproteobacteria also show strong connections to the Aquificae. The phylogenetic affiliations of different functional subsystems showed strong biases: most but not all genes implicated in the core translational apparatus tended to group Aquificae with Thermotogae, while a wide range of metabolic and cellular processes strongly supported the link between Aquificae and Epsilonproteobacteria. Depending on which sets of genes are privileged, either Thermotogae or Epsilonproteobacteria is the most plausible adjacent lineage to the Aquificae. Both scenarios require massive sharing of genes to explain the history of this enigmatic group, whose history is further complicated by specific affinities of different members of Aquificae to different partner lineages.
    Genome Biology and Evolution 11/2013; · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bioinformatics and functional screens identified a group of Family A-type DNA Polymerase (polA) genes encoded by viruses inhabiting circumneutral and alkaline hot springs in Yellowstone National Park and the U.S. Great Basin. The proteins encoded by these viral polA genes (PolAs) shared no significant sequence similarity with any known viral proteins, but were remarkably similar to PolAs encoded by two of three families of the bacterial phylum Aquificae and by several apicoplast-targeted PolA-like proteins found in the eukaryotic phylum Apicomplexa, which includes the obligate parasites Plasmodium, Babesia, and Toxoplasma. The viral gene products share signature elements previously associated only with Aquificae and Apicomplexa PolA-like proteins and were similar to proteins encoded by prophage elements of a variety of otherwise unrelated Bacteria, each of which additionally encoded a prototypical bacterial PolA. Unique among known viral DNA polymerases, the viral PolA proteins of this study share with the Apicomplexa proteins large amino-terminal domains with putative helicase/primase elements but low primary sequence similarity. The genomic context and distribution, phylogeny, and biochemistry of these PolA proteins suggest that thermophilic viruses transferred polA genes to the Apicomplexa, likely through secondary endosymbiosis of a virus-infected proto-apicoplast, and to the common ancestor of two of three Aquificae families, where they displaced the orthologous cellular polA gene. Based on biochemical activity, gene structure, and sequence similarity we speculate that the xenologous viral-type polA genes may have functions associated with diversity-generating recombination in both Bacteria and Apicomplexa.
    Molecular Biology and Evolution 04/2013; · 14.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report here detailed phylogenetic and comparative analyses on 11 sequenced genomes from the phylum Aquificae to identify molecular markers that are specific for the species from this phylum or its different families (viz. Aquificaceae, Hydrogenothermaceae and Desulfurobacteriaceae). In phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene or concatenated sequences for 32 conserved proteins, species from the three Aquificae families formed distinct clades. These trees also supported a strong relationship between the Aquificaceae and Hydrogenothermaceae families. In parallel, comparative analyses on protein sequences from Aquificae genomes have identified 46 conserved signature indels (CSIs) in broadly distributed proteins that are either exclusively or mainly found in members of the phylum Aquificae or its different families and subclades. Four of these CSIs, which are found in all sequenced Aquificae species, provide potential molecular markers for this phylum. Twelve, six and thirteen other CSIs that respectively are specific for the sequenced Aquificaceae, Hydrogenothermaceae and Desulfurobacteriaceae species provide molecular markers and novel tools for the identification of members of these families and for genetic and biochemical studies on them. Lastly, these studies have identified 11 CSIs in divergent proteins that are uniquely shared by members of the Aquificaceae and Hydrogenothermaceae families providing strong evidence that these two groups of bacteria shared a common ancestor exclusive of all other Aquificae (bacteria). The species from these two families are also very similar in their metabolic and physiological properties and they consist of aerobic or microaerophilic bacteria, which generally obtain energy by oxidation of hydrogen or reduced sulfur compounds by molecular oxygen. Based upon their strong association in phylogenetic trees, unique shared presence of large numbers of CSIs in different proteins, and similarities in their metabolic and physiological properties, it is proposed that the order Aquificales should be emended to include only the members of the families Aquificaceae and Hydrogenothermaceae. The members of the family Desulfurobacteriaceae, which are obligate anaerobes that strictly use hydrogen as electron donor, are now transferred to a new order Desulfurobacteriales ord. nov. The emended descriptions of the phylum Aquificae and its three families incorporating information for different molecular signatures are also provided.
    Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 06/2013; · 2.07 Impact Factor

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