Dietary flavonoid intake and breast cancer risk among women on Long Island.
ABSTRACT Flavonoids are found in a variety of foods and have anticarcinogenic properties in experimental models. Few epidemiologic studies have examined whether flavonoid intake is associated with breast cancer in humans. In this study, the authors investigated whether dietary flavonoid intake was associated with reduced risk of breast cancer in a population-based sample of US women. They conducted a case-control study among women who resided in Nassau and Suffolk counties on Long Island, New York. Cases and controls were interviewed about known and suspected risk factors and asked to complete a food frequency questionnaire regarding their average intake in the prior 12 months. A total of 1,434 breast cancer cases and 1,440 controls provided adequate responses. A decrease in breast cancer risk was associated with flavonoid intake; the decrease was most pronounced among postmenopausal women for flavonols (odds ratio (OR) = 0.54, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.40, 0.73), flavones (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.45, 0.83), flavan-3-ols (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.55, 0.99), and lignans (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.51, 0.94). The authors conclude that intake of flavonols, flavones, flavan-3-ols, and lignans is associated with reduced risk of incident postmenopausal breast cancer among Long Island women. These results suggest that US women can consume sufficient levels of flavonoids to benefit from their potential chemopreventive effects.
SourceAvailable from: Ying Wang[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Results from preclinical studies suggest that flavonoids, which are ubiquitous in plant-based diets, lower breast cancer risk. Epidemiologic studies of flavonoid intake and breast cancer risk, however, are limited, and few investigated associations with the more aggressive estrogen receptor (ER)-negative (ER-) tumors. We examined the associations between 7 subclasses of dietary flavonoids and invasive postmenopausal breast cancer risk overall and by ER status in a U.S. prospective cohort. In 1999-2000, 56,630 postmenopausal women completed detailed self-administered questionnaires, among whom 2116 invasive breast cancers were verified during a mean follow-up period of 8.5 y. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% CIs. Total flavonoid intake was not associated with breast cancer risk. However, there was a modest inverse association between flavone intake and overall breast cancer risk (fifth vs. first quintile HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.01; P-trend = 0.04) and between flavan-3-ol intake and risk of ER- breast cancer (for an increment of 40 mg/d; HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.97) but not for ER-positive (ER+) breast cancer risk. The inverse association of flavan-3-ol intake with ER- but not ER+ breast cancer is consistent with other studies that suggest a beneficial role of plant-based diets in ER- breast cancer risk.Journal of Nutrition 08/2014; 144(10). DOI:10.3945/jn.114.196964 · 4.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Palm oil is the major oil produced, with annual world production in excess of 50 million tonnes. About 85% of global palm oil produced is used in food applications. Over the past three decades, research on nutritional benefits of palm oil have demonstrated the nutritional adequacy of palm oil and its products, and have resulted in transitions in the understanding these attributes. Numerous studies have demonstrated that palm oil was similar to unsaturated oils with regards to effects on blood lipids. Palm oil provides a healthy alternative to trans-fatty acid containing hydrogenated fats that have been demonstrated to have serious deleterious effects on health. The similar effects of palm oil on blood lipids, comparable to other vegetable oils could very well be due to the structure of the major triglycerides in palm oil, which has an unsaturated fatty acid in the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone. In addition, palm oil is well endowed with a bouquet of phytonutrients beneficial to health, such as tocotrienols, carotenoids and phytosterols. This review will provide an overview of studies that have established palm oil as a balanced and nutritious oil.European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 10/2014; 116(10). DOI:10.1002/ejlt.201400076 · 2.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Flavonoids, a broad category of nonnutrient food components, are potential protective dietary factors in the etiology of some cancers. However, previous epidemiological studies showing associations between flavonoid intake and cancer risk have used unvalidated intake assessment methods. A 62-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) based on usual intake of a representative Australian adult population sample was validated against a 3-day diet diary method in 60 young adults. Spearman's rank correlations showed 17 of 25 individual flavonoids, 3 of 5 flavonoid subgroups, and total flavonoids having strong/moderate correlation coefficients (0.40-0.70), and 8 of 25 individual flavonoids and 2 of 5 flavonoid subgroups having weak/insignificant correlations (0.01-0.39) between the 2 methods. Bland-Altman plots showed most subjects within ±1.96 SD for intakes of flavonoid subgroups and total flavonoids. The FFQ classified 73-90% of participants for all flavonoids except isorhamnetin, cyanidin, delphinidin, peonidin, and pelargonidin; 73.3-85.0% for all flavonoid subgroups except Anthocyanidins; and 86.7% for total flavonoid intake in the same/adjacent quartile determined by the 3-day diary. Weighted kappa values ranged from 0.00 (Isorhamnetin, Pelargonidin) to 0.60 (Myricetin) and were statistically significant for 18 of 25 individual flavonoids, 3 of 5 subgroups, and total flavonoids. This FFQ provides a simple and inexpensive means to estimate total flavonoid and flavonoid subgroup intake.Nutrition and Cancer 09/2014; 66(7):1-11. DOI:10.1080/01635581.2014.951728 · 2.47 Impact Factor