Polar head groups are important for barrier-protective effects of oxidized phospholipids on pulmonary endothelium.
ABSTRACT We have previously described protective effects of oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (OxPAPC) on pulmonary endothelial cell (EC) barrier function and demonstrated the critical role of cyclopentenone-containing modifications of arachidonoyl moiety in OxPAPC protective effects. In this study we used oxidized phosphocholine (OxPAPC), phosphoserine (OxPAPS), and glycerophosphate (OxPAPA) to investigate the role of polar head groups in EC barrier-protective responses to oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs). OxPAPC and OxPAPS induced sustained barrier enhancement in pulmonary EC, whereas OxPAPA caused a transient protective response as judged by measurements of transendothelial electrical resistance (TER). Non-OxPLs showed no effects on TER levels. All three OxPLs caused enhancement of peripheral EC actin cytoskeleton. OxPAPC and OxPAPS completely abolished LPS-induced EC hyperpermeability in vitro, whereas OxPAPA showed only a partial protective effect. In vivo, intravenous injection of OxPAPS or OxPAPC (1.5 mg/kg) markedly attenuated increases in the protein content, cell counts, and myeloperoxidase activities detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid upon intratracheal LPS instillation in mice, although OxPAPC showed less potency. All three OxPLs partially attenuated EC barrier dysfunction induced by IL-6 and thrombin. Their protective effects against thrombin-induced EC barrier dysfunction were linked to the attenuation of the thrombin-induced Rho pathway of EC hyperpermeability and stimulation of Rac-mediated mechanisms of EC barrier recovery. These results demonstrate for the first time the essential role of polar OxPL groups in blunting the LPS-induced EC dysfunction in vitro and in vivo and suggest the mechanism of agonist-induced hyperpermeability attenuation by OxPLs via reduction of Rho and stimulation of Rac signaling.
Article: Differential regulation of endothelial cell permeability by high and low doses of oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The generation of phospholipid oxidation products in atherosclerosis, sepsis, and lung pathologies affects endothelial barrier function, which exerts significant consequences on disease outcomes in general. Our group previously showed that oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (OxPAPC) at low concentrations increases endothelial cell (EC) barrier function, but decreases it at higher concentrations. In this study, we determined the mechanisms responsible for the pulmonary endothelial cell barrier dysfunction induced by high OxPAPC concentrations. OxPAPC at a range of 5-20 μg/ml enhanced EC barriers, as indicated by increased transendothelial electrical resistance. In contrast, higher OxPAPC concentrations (50-100 μg/ml) rapidly increased EC permeability, which was accompanied by increased total cell protein tyrosine (Tyr) phosphorylation, phosphorylation at Tyr-418, the activation of Src kinase, and the phosphorylation of adherens junction (AJ) protein vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) at Tyr-731 and Tyr-658, which was not observed in ECs stimulated with low OxPAPC doses. The early tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin was linked to the dissociation of VE-cadherin-p120-catenin/β-catenin complexes and VE-cadherin internalization, whereas low OxPAPC doses promoted the formation of VE-cadherin-p120-catenin/β-catenin complexes. High but not low doses of OxPAPC increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and protein oxidation. The inhibition of Src by PP2 and ROS production by N-acetyl cysteine inhibited the disassembly of VE-cadherin-p120-catenin complexes, and attenuated high OxPAPC-induced EC barrier disruption. These results show the differential effects of OxPAPC doses on VE-cadherin-p120-catenin complex assembly and EC barrier function. These data suggest that the rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and other potential targets mediated by Src and ROS-dependent mechanisms plays a key role in the dissociation of AJ complexes and EC barrier dysfunction induced by high OxPAPC doses.American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 03/2012; 46(3):331-41. · 5.13 Impact Factor
Article: Opposite effects of ANP receptors in attenuation of LPS-induced endothelial permeability and lung injury.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) has been recently identified as a modulator of acute lung injury (ALI) induced by pro-inflammatory agonists. While previous studies tested effects of exogenous ANP administration, the role of endogenous ANP in the course of ALI remains unexplored. This study examined regulation of ANP and its receptors NPR-A, NPR-B and NPR-C by LPS and involvement of ANP receptors in the modulation of LPS-induced lung injury. Primary cultures of human pulmonary endothelial cells (EC) were used in the in vitro tests. Expression of ANP and its receptors was determined by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Agonist-induced cytoskeletal remodeling was evaluated by immunofluorescence staining, and EC barrier function was characterized by measurements of transendothelial electrical resistance. In the murine model of ALI, LPS-induced lung injury was assessed by measurements of protein concentration and cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL). LPS stimulation significantly increased mRNA expression levels of ANP and NPR-A in pulmonary EC. Pharmacological inhibition of NPR-A augmented LPS-induced EC permeability and blocked barrier protective effects of exogenous ANP on LPS-induced intercellular gap formation. In contrast, pharmacological inhibition of ANP clearance receptor NPR-C significantly attenuated LPS-induced barrier disruptive effects. Administration of NPR-A inhibitor in vivo exacerbated LPS-induced lung injury, whereas inhibition of NPR-C suppressed LPS-induced increases in BAL cell count and protein content. These results demonstrate for the first time opposite effects of NPR-A and NPR-C in the modulation of ALI and suggest a compensatory protective mechanism of endogenous ANP in the maintenance of lung vascular permeability in ALI.Microvascular Research 03/2012; 83(2):194-9. · 2.83 Impact Factor
Article: A role for VEGFR2 activation in endothelial responses caused by barrier disruptive OxPAPC concentrations.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Oxidation products of 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (OxPAPC) differentially modulate endothelial cell (EC) barrier function in a dose-dependent fashion. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) is involved in the OxPAPC-induced EC inflammatory activation. This study examined a role of VEGFR2 in barrier dysfunction caused by high concentrations of OxPAPC and evaluated downstream signaling mechanisms resulting from the effect of OxPAPC in EC from pulmonary and systemic circulation. EC monolayer permeability in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAEC) and human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) was monitored by changes in transendothelial electrical resistance (TER) across EC monolayers. Actin cytoskeleton was examined by immunostaining with Texas Red labeled phalloidin. Phosphorylation of myosin light chains (MLC) and VE-Cadherin was examined by Western blot and immunofluorescence techniques. The role of VEGFR2 in OxPAPC-induced permeability and cytoskeletal arrangement were determined using siRNA-induced VEGFR2 knockdown. Low OxPAPC concentrations (5-20 µg/ml) induced a barrier protective response in both HPAEC and HAEC, while high OxPAPC concentrations (50-100 µg/ml) caused a rapid increase in permeability; actin stress fiber formation and increased MLC phosphorylation were observed as early as 30 min after treatment. VEGFR2 knockdown dramatically decreased the amount of MLC phosphorylation and stress fiber formation caused by high OxPAPC concentrations with modest effects on the amount of VE-cadherin phosphorylation at Y(731). We present evidence that activation of Rho is involved in the OxPAPC/VEGFR2 mechanism of EC permeability induced by high OxPAPC concentrations. Knockdown of VEGFR2 did not rescue the early drop in TER but prevented further development of OxPAPC-induced barrier dysfunction. This study shows that VEGFR2 is involved in the delayed phase of EC barrier dysfunction caused by high OxPAPC concentrations and contributes to stress fiber formation and increased MLC phosphorylation.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(1):e30957. · 4.09 Impact Factor