A comparative dose-related response of several key pro- and antiinflammatory mediators in the lungs of rats, mice, and hamsters after subchronic inhalation of carbon black.
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to investigate mechanisms underlying species specificity in particle-induced lung inflammation.
Rats, mice, and hamsters exposed to air, 1, 7, or 50 mg/m3 of carbon black for 13 weeks were killed at 1 day, 3 months, and 11 months after exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and characterized for cell number, cell type, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and cytokine levels. Ex vivo mutational analysis of inflammatory cells was evaluated by coincubating with lung epithelial cells. Lung tissue was evaluated for gene expression of various antiinflammatory mediators.
There was a dose- and time-related effect with all the parameters. Rats demonstrated greater propensity for generating a proinflammatory response, whereas mice and hamsters demonstrated an increased antiinflammatory response.
These differences in pro- and antiinflammatory responses may contribute to the apparent species differences in inflammation and tumorigenesis.
- SourceAvailable from: Laura S Van Winkle[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Current studies of particulate matter (PM) are confounded by the fact that PM is a complex mixture of primary (crustal material, soot, metals) and secondary (nitrates, sulfates, and organics formed in the atmosphere) compounds with considerable variance in composition by sources and location. We have developed a laboratory-based PM that is replicable, does not contain dust or metals and that can be used to study specific health effects of PM composition in animal models. We exposed both neonatal (7 days of age) and adult rats to a single 6-h exposure of laboratory generated fine diffusion flame particles (DFP; 170 µg/m(3)), or filtered air. Pulmonary gene and protein expression as well as indicators of cytotoxicity were evaluated 24 h after exposure. Although DFP exposure did not alter airway epithelial cell composition in either neonates or adults, increased lactate dehydrogenase activity was found in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of neonates indicating an age-specific increase in susceptibility. In adults, 16 genes were differentially expressed as a result of DFP exposure whereas only 6 genes were altered in the airways of neonates. Glutamate cysteine ligase protein was increased in abundance in both DFP exposed neonates and adults indicating an initiation of antioxidant responses involving the synthesis of glutathione. DFP significantly decreased catalase gene expression in adult airways, although catalase protein expression was increased by DFP in both neonates and adults. We conclude that key airway antioxidant enzymes undergo changes in expression in response to a moderate PM exposure that does not cause frank epithelial injury and that neonates have a different response pattern than adults.Inhalation Toxicology 10/2010; 22 Suppl 2:70-83. DOI:10.3109/08958378.2010.513403 · 2.34 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nanoparticles present enormous surface areas and are found to enhance the rate of protein fibrillation by decreasing the lag time for nucleation. Protein fibrillation is involved in many human diseases, including Alzheimer's, Creutzfeld-Jacob disease, and dialysis-related amyloidosis. Fibril formation occurs by nucleation-dependent kinetics, wherein formation of a critical nucleus is the key rate-determining step, after which fibrillation proceeds rapidly. We show that nanoparticles (copolymer particles, cerium oxide particles, quantum dots, and carbon nanotubes) enhance the probability of appearance of a critical nucleus for nucleation of protein fibrils from human beta(2)-microglobulin. The observed shorter lag (nucleation) phase depends on the amount and nature of particle surface. There is an exchange of protein between solution and nanoparticle surface, and beta(2)-microglobulin forms multiple layers on the particle surface, providing a locally increased protein concentration promoting oligomer formation. This and the shortened lag phase suggest a mechanism involving surface-assisted nucleation that may increase the risk for toxic cluster and amyloid formation. It also opens the door to new routes for the controlled self-assembly of proteins and peptides into novel nanomaterials.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2007; 104(21):8691-6. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0701250104 · 9.81 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This review presents an overview of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) preparation by green synthesis approaches that have advantages over conventional methods involving chemical agents associated with environmental toxicity. Green synthetic methods include mixed-valence polyoxometallates, polysaccharide, Tollens, irradiation, and biological. The mixed-valence polyoxometallates method was carried out in water, an environmentally-friendly solvent. Solutions of AgNO(3) containing glucose and starch in water gave starch-protected Ag NPs, which could be integrated into medical applications. Tollens process involves the reduction of Ag(NH(3))(2)(+) by saccharides forming Ag NP films with particle sizes from 50-200 nm, Ag hydrosols with particles in the order of 20-50 nm, and Ag colloid particles of different shapes. The reduction of Ag(NH(3))(2)(+) by HTAB (n-hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide) gave Ag NPs of different morphologies: cubes, triangles, wires, and aligned wires. Ag NPs synthesis by irradiation of Ag(+) ions does not involve a reducing agent and is an appealing procedure. Eco-friendly bio-organisms in plant extracts contain proteins, which act as both reducing and capping agents forming stable and shape-controlled Ag NPs. The synthetic procedures of polymer-Ag and TiO(2)-Ag NPs are also given. Both Ag NPs and Ag NPs modified by surfactants or polymers showed high antimicrobial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The mechanism of the Ag NP bactericidal activity is discussed in terms of Ag NP interaction with the cell membranes of bacteria. Silver-containing filters are shown to have antibacterial properties in water and air purification. Finally, human and environmental implications of Ag NPs to the ecology of aquatic environment are briefly discussed.Advances in Colloid and Interface Science 10/2008; 145(1-2):83-96. DOI:10.1016/j.cis.2008.09.002 · 8.64 Impact Factor