Non-conventional flow cytometry approaches to detect anti-Trypanosoma cruzi immunoglobulin G in the clinical laboratory.

Laboratório de Doença de Chagas, Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Brazil.
Journal of Immunological Methods (Impact Factor: 2.01). 02/2007; 318(1-2):102-12. DOI: 10.1016/j.jim.2006.10.009
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We have recently developed a flow cytometric approach to detect anti-live trypomastigote and anti-fixed epimastigote IgG antibodies (FC-ALTA and FC-AFEA) in sera from individuals infected by Trypanosoma cruzi. Here, we present the first evaluation of the applicability of FC-AFEA-IgG as a diagnostic tool for Chagas disease. Performance analysis demonstrated that FC-AFEA-IgG has a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 100%. The assessment for prognosis performed by FC-ALTA-IgG1 and FC-AFEA-IgG, after classification of chagasic patients as belonging to indeterminate (IND), cardiac (CARD) or digestive (DIG) clinical forms, showed that most of IND have higher amounts of IgG than individuals' carrying CARD or DIG Chagas disease. FC-AFEA-IgG was also evaluated as a method to monitor chemotherapy efficacy in individuals classified into three distinct categories: not treated (NT), treated but not cured (TNC), and treated and cured (TC). Performance analysis demonstrated that FC-AFEA-IgG has an extraordinary capacity as a serological criterion to assess cure after therapeutic intervention in Chagas disease. These results represent a great advance in the application of serological techniques for clinical investigations on Chagas disease, and they clearly define new directions and perspectives. We intend to continue this field research focusing our attention on the influence of the degree of clinical damage on the FC-ALTA-IgG1 and FC-AFEA-IgG reactivity.

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    ABSTRACT: This study developed a remarkable methodological innovation (FC-ATE) which enables simultaneous detection of antibodies specific to the three evolutive forms of Trypanosoma cruzi: live amastigote (AMA), live trypomastigote (TRYPO), and fixed epimastigote (EPI) using a differential fluorescence staining as low (AMA), intermediate (TRYPO), and high (EPI). An outstanding performance (100%) was observed in the discrimination of chagasic (CH), and non-chagasic (NCH) patients. In the applicability of FC-ATE in the diagnosis of Chagas disease,100% of the CH samples presented positivity in the percentage of positive fluorescent parasites (PPFP) for all three forms of T. cruzi. Moreover, 94% of the samples of NCH presented negatives values of PPFP with AMA and TRYPO, and 88% with EPI. Samples from NCH group with false-positive results were those belonging to the leishmaniasis patients. Considering the applicability of this technique in post-therapeutic monitoring of Chagas disease, 100% of non-treated (NT), and treated non-cured (TNC) samples were positive with the three T. cruzi evolutive forms, while a percentage of 100% from samples of the treated cured (TC) patients were negative with AMA, 93% with TRYPO, and 96% with EPI. The comparison between FC-ATE and two other flow cytometric tests using the same samples of patients NT, TNC and TC showed that the three techniques presented different reactivity, although categorical correlation between the methodologies were observed. Taken together, the results obtained with the novel FC-ATE method have shown an outstanding performance in the diagnosis and post-therapeutic monitoring of Chagas disease.
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    ABSTRACT: Chagas disease affects about 5 million people across the world. The etiological agent, the intracellular parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), can be diagnosed using microscopy, serology or PCR based assays. However, each of these methods has their limitations regarding sensitivity and specificity, and thus to complement these existing diagnostic methods, alternate assays need to be developed. It is well documented that several parasite proteins called T. cruzi Excreted Secreted Antigens (TESA), are released into the blood of an infected host. These circulating parasite antigens could thus be used as highly specific biomarkers of T. cruzi infection. In this study, we have demonstrated that, using a SELEx based approach, parasite specific ligands called aptamers, can be used to detect TESA in the plasma of T. cruzi infected mice. An Enzyme Linked Aptamer (ELA) assay, similar to ELISA, was developed using biotinylated aptamers to demonstrate that these RNA ligands could interact with parasite targets. Aptamer L44 (Apt-L44) showed significant and specific binding to TESA as well as T. cruzi trypomastigote extract and not to host proteins or proteins of Leishmania donovani, a related trypanosomatid parasite. Our result also demonstrated that the target of Apt-L44 is conserved in three different strains of T. cruzi. In mice infected with T. cruzi, Apt-L44 demonstrated a significantly higher level of binding compared to non-infected mice suggesting that it could detect a biomarker of T. cruzi infection. Additionally, Apt-L44 could detect these circulating biomarkers in both the acute phase, from 7 to 28 days post infection, and in the chronic phase, from 55 to 230 days post infection. Our results show that Apt-L44 could thus be used in a qualitative ELA assay to detect biomarkers of Chagas disease.
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    ABSTRACT: This study aims to investigate a flow cytometry performance–based methodology to detect anti-live (FC-ALPA-IgG) and anti-fixed (FC-AFPA-IgG) Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis promastigote IgG as a means to monitor post-therapeutic cure of patients with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL). Serum samples from 30 LCL patients infected with L. (V.) braziliensis were assayed, comparing the IgG reactivity before and after specific treatment with pentavalent antimonial. Reactivities were reported as the percentage of positive fluorescent parasites (PPFP), using a PPFP of 60% as a cut-off value. In the serum dilution of 1:1024, the positive percentage of LCL serum sample for FC-ALPA-IgG and FC-AFPA-IgG was 86% and 90%, respectively, before treatment. Analysis of ∆PPFP that represents the difference between PPFP after and before treatment appeared as a new approach to monitor post-therapeutic IgG reactivity in LCL. Our data support the perspective of using FC-ALPA and FC-AFPA as a useful serologic tool for diagnosis and for post-therapeutic follow-up of LCL patients.
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