Endometrial histology following 1 year of a continuous daily regimen of levonorgestrel 90 mu g/ethinyl estradiol 20 mu g

University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, United States
Contraception (Impact Factor: 2.93). 02/2007; 75(1):23-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.contraception.2006.07.009
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a continuous daily regimen of levonorgestrel (LNG) 90 micro g/ethinyl estradiol (EE) 20 micro g on endometrial histology.
This was a substudy of a large phase 3 trial conducted in six sites in North America. Healthy and sexually active women aged between 18 and 49 years took LNG 90 micro g/EE 20 micro g daily for 1 year. Results from endometrial biopsies performed at pretreatment baseline and those after at least 6 months of treatment were compared.
Of the 146 participants, 93 had a baseline biopsy and completed at least six pill packs. Before treatment, 56 subjects (60%) had an endometrial biopsy with findings classified as "weakly proliferative or proliferative." During the last on-therapy visit, 48 subjects (52%) had an endometrium categorized as "other," which included primarily an inactive or benign endometrium (n=42). No hyperplasia or malignancy was observed during the study.
The results of a 1-year continuous regimen of LNG 90 micro g/EE 20 micro g were shown to have a good endometrial safety profile.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The modification and refinement of Mg2Si phase is thought to be one of the key aspects to improve the mechanical properties of Si-containing magnesium alloys. In this article, the effects of Sr on the microstructure, tensile and creep properties of AZ61-0.7Si magnesium alloy were investigated. The results indicate that adding small amounts of Sr to AZ61-0.7Si alloy can modify and refine Chinese script shaped Mg2Si phases in the alloy. After adding 0.03wt%-0.09wt% Sr to AZ61-0.7Si alloy, the Mg2Si phases in the alloy change from the coarse Chinese script shape to fine granule and/or irregular polygonal shapes. The modification and refinement mechanisms of Mg2Si phases in Sr-containing AZ61-0.7Si alloys are possibly related to the reduction of growth rate and the enhancement of nucleation ratio for Mg2Si particles during the solidification process. Owing to the modification and refinement of Mg2Si phases, the tensile and creep properties of Sr-containing AZ61-0.7Si alloys are greatly improved.
    International Journal of Minerals Metallurgy and Materials 02/2009; 16(1):89-95. DOI:10.1016/S1674-4799(09)60015-7 · 0.57 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: One suggested goal of contraceptive development has always been that the method should have little or no effect on the menstrual cycle. More specifically, mimicking a normal 28-day cycle was considered desirable. Combination oral contraceptives have thus been formulated in such a way as to provide an artificial but typically regular monthly cycle. For many years, however, clinicians have used hormonal manipulation of the menstrual cycle to provide therapeutic amenorrhea in individuals with underlying medical problems. There is growing interest in the use of combined oral estrogen-progestin contraception in extended «cycles» of 3, 6 and 12 or more months. Extended cycle contraception leads to better compliance than conventional cycle contraception, thus optimizing contraceptive effectiveness. Although this type of contraception is not accepted by all women, some do prefer to have fewer menstrual cycles, minimizing menstrual-related symptoms.
    Progresos de Obstetricia y Ginecología 05/2010; 53(5). DOI:10.1016/j.pog.2009.12.006
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective To assess whether continuous and extended regimens (CRs/ERs) of combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) improve symptoms related to withdrawal bleeding or the hormone-free interval and to compare the efficacy, safety, and cost of CRs/ERs to those of conventional 28-day regimens. Study design A literature search of the PubMed database was conducted for randomised clinical trials (RCTs) and observational studies published in any language between 2006 and 2013. Results Sixteen RCTs and 14 observational studies evaluated issues related to our objectives. CRs/ERs, whose efficacy and safety were comparable to those described for conventional regimens, were preferred due to their improvement of symptoms related to withdrawal bleeding or the hormone-free interval and the lower costs resulting from the reduced incidence of these symptoms. Conclusion The contraceptive efficacy and safety of CR/ER use of CHCs is at least equal to that of 28-days conventional regimens, and this use may have some cost savings. CRs/ERs are recommended for women willing to take a CHC for treatment of symptoms related to withdrawal bleeding or the hormone-free interval.
    The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care 06/2014; 19(5). DOI:10.3109/13625187.2014.927423 · 1.81 Impact Factor