Effects of IL-10 on endothelium-dependent T cell activation have not been investigated in detail. We confirm expression of the IL-10 receptor and effective signaling via STAT-3 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). In CD4 T cell cocultures with HUVEC, pretreatment of endothelial cells with IL-10 resulted in significant dose-dependent inhibition of CD4 T cell proliferation, which also occurred when IL-10 was removed after pretreatment before starting cocultures. Th1/Th2 polarization of proliferated T cells, endothelial nitric oxide (NO), or IL-12 production were unchanged. However, IL-10 stimulation resulted in up-regulation of SOCS-3, a negative regulator of cytokine secretion, and induction of the inhibitory surface molecules immunoglobulin-like transcript 3 and 4 (ILT3/ILT4) in EC, potentially involving glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ). Addition of blocking antibodies against ILT3/ILT4 to EC/T cell cocultures resulted in nearly complete reestablishment of T cell proliferation. In contrast, addition of soluble ILT3 or overexpression of ILT3 in cocultures significantly reduced T cell proliferation. No induction of foxp3+ regulatory T cells was seen. In conclusion, the T cell costimulatory potential of human EC is markedly suppressed by IL-10 due to up-regulation of ILT3/ILT4, obviously not involving generation of Treg. This identifies a novel action of IL-10 in EC and a potential therapeutical target for local immunomodulation.
"IL-10, a pleiotropic cytokine, primarily produced by Th2 cells and Treg cells, has been reported to induce ILT4 upregulation in monocytes and DCs, rendering them tolerogenic [23,24]. Furthermore, in human endothelial cells (ECs), IL-10 also upregulates ILT3/ILT4 expression; and suppresses T-cell co-stimulatory potential of human ECs . However, there is no study to determinate the relationship between ILT4 and IL-10 expression in tumor tissues and assay their role in tumor progression. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunoglobulin-like transcript 4 (ILT4) is an inhibitory molecule involved in immune response and has recently been identified to be strongly inducible by IL-10. The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of ILT4 expression with clinicopathological characteristics and IL-10 expression in primary ductal and lobular breast cancer.
We studied the expression of ILT4 in 4 cancer cell lines, 117 primary tumor tissues and 97 metastatic lymph nodes from patients with primary ductal and lobular breast cancer by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blot or immunohistochemistry analysis. Additionally, IL-10 expression was also investigated using immunohistochemistry in primary tumor tissues. Then the relationship between ILT4 expression and clinicopathological characteristics/IL-10 expression was evaluated.
ILT4 was over expressed in all 4 human breast cancer cell lines on both mRNA and protein levels. In primary tumor tissues, ILT4 or IL-10 was expressed in the cell membrane, cytoplasm, or both; the positive rate of ILT4 and IL-10 expression was 60.7% (71/117) and 80.34% (94/117), respectively. ILT4 level was significantly correlated with IL-10 (r =0.577; p < 0.01). Furthermore, the expression of ILT4 or IL-10 was associated with less number of Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TILs) (p = 0.004 and 0.018, respectively) and more lymph node metastasis (p = 0.046 and 0.035, respectively).
Our data demonstrated the association of ILT4 and IL-10 expression in human breast cancer, suggesting their important roles in immune dysfunction and lymph node metastases.Virtual slides: The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1692652692107916.Virtual Slides: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1692652692107916.
"This could be in line with the observation that IL-10 has a direct inhibitory effect on smooth muscle cells
 which would result in congestion and a rise in symptoms. The molecular mechanism that could play a role in the regulation of IL-10 in endothelial/structural cells remains yet unclear, as most reports concerning IL-10 and endothelium concerns the effect of IL-10 on endothelium
[30,31] rather than its expression by endothelium. It remains to be explored whether triggers that previously have been shown to affect IL-10 expression, like Fc-receptor activation in mouse dendritic cells DC
 or histamine exposure of human dendritic cells
, also plays a role in human nasal endothelial cells. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a negative regulator of immune responses and was previously shown to be expressed by human nasal endothelial cells, while the adhesion molecule MECA-79 plays a role in trans-endothelial migration of immune competent cells. In this study we investigate the relationship between endothelial IL-10 and MECA-79 expression to address the question whether immune competent cells could be affected at the mucosal entry site.
Nasal turbinate biopsies were taken from house dust mite allergic patients, before and after nasal allergen provocation. Subsequent slides of biopsies were stained for IL10, MECA-79, CD34, and IL10-Receptor. Capillaries, arteries/veins, and sinusoids were evaluated separately.
90% of sinusoids are IL-10 positive and all sinusoids are negative for MECA-79, while 4.8% of capillaries are positive for IL-10, and 2.2% are positive for MECA-79. Although about 47% of arteries/veins are positive for IL-10 and 57.1% are positive for MECA-79, only about 20% are positive for both markers. Furthermore, we showed that the myo-fibroblasts surrounding all sinusoids stain positive for IL10R.
IL10 expression on vascular structures is not related to MECA expression for sinusoids and capillaries and only partly related on arteries/veins, however sinusoidal endothelial IL10 expression is always seen in combination with IL-10R expression of sinusoidal myo-fibroblasts.
"Of potential interest, we measured high levels of IL-10 in post-pegfilgrastim DC cultures (317 ± 140 pg/ml compared with 27.1 ± 2.3 pg/ml in control cultures of immunogenic GM4DC). IL-10 secretion may have been responsible for ILT3 up-regulation on post-pegfilgrastim monocytes, in line with the effect of exogenous IL-10 on ILT3 expression by human vascular endothelial cells . We also evaluated the ability of post-pegfilgrastim DC to activate allogeneic T-cell responses in vitro. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pegylated granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF; pegfilgrastim) is a longer-acting form of G-CSF, whose effects on dendritic cell (DC) and regulatory T cell (Treg) mobilization, and on the in vivo and ex vivo release of immune modulating cytokines remain unexplored.
Twelve patients with gynecological cancers received carboplatin/paclitaxel chemotherapy and single-dose pegfilgrastim as prophylaxis of febrile neutropenia. Peripheral blood was collected prior to pegfilgrastim administration (day 0) and on days +7, +11 and +21, to quantify immunoregulatory cytokines and to assess type 1 DC (DC1), type 2 DC (DC2) and Treg cell mobilization. In vitro-differentiated, monocyte-derived DC were used to investigate endocytic activity, expression of DC maturation antigens and ability to activate allogeneic T-cell proliferation.
Pegfilgrastim increased the frequency of circulating DC1 and DC2 precursors. In contrast, CD4+FoxP3+ bona fide Treg cells were unchanged compared with baseline. Serum levels of hepatocyte growth factor and interleukin (IL)-12p40, but not transforming growth factor-β1 or immune suppressive kynurenines, significantly increased after pegfilgrastim administration. Interestingly, pegfilgrastim fostered in vitro monocytic secretion of IL-12p40 and IL-12p70 when compared with unconjugated G-CSF. Finally, DC populations differentiated in vitro after clinical provision of pegfilgrastim were phenotypically mature, possessed low endocytic activity, and incited a robust T-cell proliferative response.
Pegfilgrastim induced significant changes in immune cell number and function. The enhancement of monocytic IL-12 secretion portends favorable implications for pegfilgrastim administration to patients with cancer, a clinical context where the induction of immune deviation would be highly undesirable.
Journal of Translational Medicine 11/2010; 8(1):114. DOI:10.1186/1479-5876-8-114 · 3.93 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.