Arginine methyltransferase Capsuleen is essential for methylation of spliceosomal Sm proteins and germ cell formation in Drosophila
ABSTRACT Although arginine modification has been implicated in a number of cellular processes, the in vivo requirement of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) in specific biological processes remain to be clarified. In this study we characterize the Drosophila PRMT Capsuléen, homologous to human PRMT5. During Drosophila oogenesis, catalytic activity of Capsuléen is necessary for both the assembly of the nuage surrounding nurse cell nuclei and the formation of the pole plasm at the posterior end of the oocyte. In particular, we show that the nuage and pole plasm localization of Tudor, an essential component for germ cell formation, are abolished in csul mutant germ cells. We identify the spliceosomal Sm proteins as in vivo substrates of Capsuléen and demonstrate that Capsuléen, together with its associated protein Valois, is essential for the synthesis of symmetric di-methylated arginyl residues in Sm proteins. Finally, we show that Tudor can be targeted to the nuage in the absence of Sm methylation by Capsuléen, indicating that Tudor localization and Sm methylation are separate processes. Our results thus reveal the role of a PRMT in protein localization in germ cells.
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ABSTRACT: Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the embryonic precursors of the germ cell lineage that form sperm and egg cells. It is of great importance to preserve the germline from DNA damage and potentially from epimutations in order to ensure the survival of future generations. Recent research highlights the role of the protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) as an important player in DNA protection during germline development in the mouse (Kim et al, 2014 & Li et al, 2015).The EMBO Journal 02/2015; 34(6). DOI:10.15252/embj.201591054 · 10.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Formation of the germline in an embryo marks a fresh round of reproductive potential, yet the developmental stage and location within the embryo where the primordial germ cells (PGCs) form differs wildly among species. In most animals, the germline is formed either by an inherited mechanism, in which maternal provisions within the oocyte drive localized germ-cell fate once acquired in the embryo, or an inductive mechanism that involves signaling between cells that directs germ-cell fate. The inherited mechanism has been widely studied in model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Xenopus laevis, and Danio rerio. Given the rapid generation time and the effective adaptation for laboratory research of these organisms, it is not coincidental that research on these organisms has led the field in elucidating mechanisms for germline specification. The inductive mechanism, however, is less well understood and is studied primarily in the mouse (Mus musculus). In this review, we compare and contrast these two fundamental mechanisms for germline determination, beginning with the key molecular determinants that play a role in the formation of germ cells across all animal taxa. We next explore the current understanding of the inductive mechanism of germ-cell determination in mice, and evaluate the hypotheses for selective pressures on these contrasting mechanisms. We then discuss the hypothesis that the transition between these determination mechanisms, which has happened many times in phylogeny, is more of a continuum than a binary change. Finally, we propose an analogy between germline determination and sex determination in vertebrates-two of the milestones of reproduction and development-in which animals use contrasting strategies to activate similar pathways. Mol. Reprod. Dev. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Molecular Reproduction and Development 08/2013; 80(8). DOI:10.1002/mrd.22151 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In Drosophila melanogaster, female-specific expression of Sex-lethal (SXL) and Transformer (TRA) proteins controls sex-specific alternative splicing and/or translation of a handful of regulatory genes responsible for sexual differentiation and behavior. Recent findings in 2009 by Telonis-Scott et al. document widespread sex-biased alternative splicing in fruitflies, including instances of tissue-restricted sex-specific splicing. Here we report results arguing that some of these novel sex-specific splicing events are regulated by mechanisms distinct from those established by female-specific expression of SXL and TRA. Bioinformatic analysis of SXL/TRA binding sites, experimental analysis of sex-specific splicing in S2 and Kc cells lines and of the effects of SXL knockdown in Kc cells indicate that SXL-dependent and SXL-independent regulatory mechanisms coexist within the same cell. Additional determinants of sex-specific splicing can be provided by sex-specific differences in the expression of RNA binding proteins, including Hrp40/Squid. We report that sex-specific alternative splicing of the gene hrp40/squid leads to sex-specific differences in the levels of this hnRNP protein. The significant overlap between sex-regulated alternative splicing changes and those induced by knockdown of hrp40/squid and the presence of related sequence motifs enriched near subsets of Hrp40/Squid-regulated and sex-regulated splice sites indicate that this protein contributes to sex-specific splicing regulation. A significant fraction of sex-specific splicing differences are absent in germline-less tudor mutant flies. Intriguingly, these include alternative splicing events that are differentially spliced in tissues distant from the germline. Collectively, our results reveal that distinct genetic programs control widespread sex-specific splicing in Drosophila melanogaster.RNA 03/2011; 17(3):453-68. DOI:10.1261/rna.2460411 · 4.62 Impact Factor