Intakes of Fruits, Vegetables, Vitamins A, C, and E, and Carotenoids and Risk of Renal Cell Cancer

Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention (Impact Factor: 4.13). 01/2007; 15(12):2445-52. DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-06-0553
Source: PubMed


Fruits and vegetables rich in antioxidants have been proposed to reduce the risk of renal cell cancer. However, few prospective studies have examined the intakes of fruits, vegetables, and antioxidant vitamins in relation to the risk of renal cell cancer.
We prospectively examined the associations between the intakes of fruits, vegetables, vitamins A, C, and E, and carotenoids and risk of renal cell cancer in women and men. We followed 88,759 women in the Nurses' Health Study from 1980 to 2000, and 47,828 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study from 1986 to 2000. We assessed dietary intake every 2 to 4 years using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate study-specific multivariate relative risks (RR), which were pooled using a random effects model.
A total of 248 (132 women and 116 men) incident renal cell cancer cases were ascertained during 2,316,525 person-years of follow-up. The consumption of fruits and vegetables was associated with a decreased risk of renal cell cancer in men (multivariate RR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.25-0.81, for >or=6 servings of fruit and vegetable intake/d versus <3 servings/d; P test for trend = 0.02), but not in women (multivariate RR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.66-2.07, for the same contrast; P test for trend = 0.25; P test for between-studies heterogeneity = 0.02). Intakes of vitamins A and C from food and carotenoids were inversely associated with the risk of renal cell cancer in men only, but we cannot exclude the possibility that this was due to other factors in fruit and vegetables. No clear association was observed for vitamin E in women or men.
Fruit and vegetable consumption may reduce the risk of renal cell cancer in men.

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    • "Despite associations with diet-related chronic conditions, such as obesity, hypertension, and diabetes, dietary risk factors for RCC are not well established (World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research, 2007; Chow et al, 2010). Intake of fruits and vegetables may lower RCC risk (Rashidkhani et al, 2005; Lee et al, 2006), whereas high meat intake may increase risk (Faramawi et al, 2007; Aune et al, 2009; Dolwick Grieb et al, 2009), but the epidemiological evidence for various aspects of diet is largely inconsistent. "
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    ABSTRACT: High-temperature cooked meat contains two families of carcinogens, heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Given the kidneys' role in metabolism and urinary excretion of these compounds, we investigated meat-derived mutagens, as well as meat intake and cooking methods, in a population-based case-control study conducted in metropolitan Detroit and Chicago. Newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the renal parenchyma (renal cell carcinoma (RCC)) cases (n=1192) were frequency matched on age, sex, and race to controls (n=1175). The interviewer-administered Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) included queries for meat-cooking methods and doneness with photographic aids. Levels of meat mutagens were estimated using the DHQ in conjunction with the CHARRED database. The risk of RCC increased with intake of barbecued meat (P(trend)=0.04) and the PAH, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval, highest vs lowest quartile: 1.50 (1.14, 1.95), P(trend)=0.001). With increasing BaP intake, the risk of RCC was more than twofold in African Americans and current smokers (P(interaction)<0.05). We found no association for HCAs or overall meat intake. BaP intake, a PAH in barbecued meat, was positively associated with RCC. These biologically plausible findings advocate further epidemiological investigation into dietary intake of BaP and risk of RCC.
    British Journal of Cancer 09/2011; 105(7):1096-104. DOI:10.1038/bjc.2011.343 · 4.84 Impact Factor
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    • " association between fruit and vegetable intake and kidney cancer , although we cannot exclude a weak protective effect . Previous cohort studies found significant or non - significant inverse associations between fruit and / or vegetable intake and kidney cancer risk ( Fraser et al . , 1990 ; Rashidkhani et al . , 2005 ; van Dijk et al . , 2005 ; Lee et al . , 2006 ; George et al . , 2009 ) , while another study reported no association ( Weikert et al . , 2006 ) . There was an inverse association between fruit and vegetable intake and risk of all cancer sites combined , although again was the association stronger for fruit than for vegetables . It should be noted that our estimate for all sites co"
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have suggested that high intake of fruit and vegetables may decrease the risk of a wide range of cancers, but this evidence has been challenged by the results of recent studies. To further explore the association between fruit and vegetable intake and cancer risk we conducted a case-control study of 11 cancer sites in Uruguay between 1996 and 2004, including 3,539 cancer cases and 2,032 hospital controls. We used unconditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cancer associations. In the multivariable model higher intake of fruits and vegetables combined was associated with a decreased risk of cancers of the esophagus (odds ratio, OR= 0.63, 95% CI: 0.42-0.97), lung (OR= 0.75, 95% CI: 0.57-0.98), breast (OR= 0.47, 95% CI: 0.31-0.71), prostate (OR= 0.63, 95% CI: 0.44-0.92) and all sites combined (OR= 0.73, 95% CI: 0.61-0.87). When evaluated separately, fruit intake was more strongly associated with decreased cancer risk than vegetables. These inverse associations were mainly observed in men, among persons with high intake of meat, alcohol drinkers and among smokers. Our results provide some evidence that high intake of fruits and vegetables and particularly fruit may decrease the risk of cancer. However, because of the possibility that these findings could be due to residual confounding from intake of meat, alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking, further studies in populations with a large number of participants with low or no exposure to these potential confounding factors are warranted.
    Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 01/2009; 10(3):419-28. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    • "A balanced diet has been shown to promote overall well-being and health (USDA, 2000). Dietary patterns with higher fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake are associated with treating and preventing metabolic syndrome (Feldeisen and Tucker, 2007) and promoting a variety of health benefits; including decreased risk for certain cancers (Lee et al., 2006), reduced morbidity and mortality from heart disease (Feldeisen and Tucker, 2007), enhanced diabetes prevention (Hodge et al., 2007) and improved weight management (Bazzano, 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: A diet high in fruits and vegetables (F&V) has been associated with a decreased risk of certain cancers, reduced morbidity and mortality from heart disease, and enhanced weight management. Yet to date, most of the US population does not consume the recommended amount of F&V despite numerous interventions and government guidelines to promote consumption. Research has found various impediments to F&V consumption, such as high costs, an obesogenic environment and low socio-economic status. However, studies have not sufficiently focused on barriers and enablers to F&V intake among adult multi-ethnic populations. The present qualitative study examines 147 focus group participants' perceptions of impediments and enablers to F&V consumption. Twelve focus groups were conducted among African American, Hispanic and Caucasian men and women in North Carolina and Connecticut. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and entered into QSR NVivo Software. Text data were systematically analyzed by investigators to identify recurrent themes both within and across groups and states. Focus group results indicate that most participants were aware of the health benefits associated with a diet rich in F&V. Yet many admitted not adhering to the Health and Human Service's recommendations. Individual impediments consisted of the high costs of F&V and a perceived lack of time. Early home food environment was perceived as affecting F&V consumption later in life. Other barriers reported were ethnic-specific. The African American participants reported limited access to fresh produce. This finding is consistent with numerous studies and must be addressed through health promotion intervention. Both the church and primary care clinics were described by African Americans as appropriate settings for health behavior interventions; these findings should be considered. Hispanic participants, mostly immigrants, cited inhibiting factors encountered in their adopted US environment. There is a need to improve the availability and access to fresh F&V commonly available in the home countries of Hispanic immigrants.
    Health Promotion International 03/2008; 23(1):42-51. DOI:10.1093/heapro/dam044 · 1.94 Impact Factor
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