Although CYP21A2 de novo mutations are assumed to account for 1 to 2% of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) alleles and CYP21 genotyping has been done worldwide, there are only a few well-documented cases of CYP21A2 de novo mutations. The majority of these are deletions resulting from unequal crossings over owing to misalignment of homologous chromosomes during meiosis. Whereas so far, only heterozygous deletions of the CYP21A1P pseudogene were seen as premutations for de novo aberrations, the present report addresses such a predisposing role for parental duplicated CYP21A2 genes.
As part of routine diagnostic procedures, CYP21 genotyping has been performed in two unrelated female CAH index patients and in their clinically asymptomatic parents and siblings.
Both patients have inherited the paternal Intron2splice mutation and have harbored a de novo gene aberration (large deletion and I271N/exon 4) on their maternal haplotype. Surprisingly, both mothers were carriers of rare duplicated CYP21A2 haplotypes carrying CAH alleles, which were not detected in the daughters. Among 133 CAH alleles that were detected in patients and that could be traced to the respective family members by genotyping, these two de novo aberrations (representing 1.5% of 133 traced CAH alleles) were the only ones identified.
Because both de novo CYP21A2 gene aberrations so far identified in our laboratory occurred in the gametes of mothers carrying rare duplicated CYP21A2 haplotypes, we hypothesize that duplicated CYP21A2 genes could predispose for de novo mutations in the offspring, which is of relevance for prenatal CYP21 genotyping and genetic counseling.
"All reported CAH mutations are inherited recessively. Thus, the recurrence risk of 25% is recognized for parents with a pervious affected child, although de novo mutations in the CYP21A2 gene have a significant role in introducing new alleles to populations; their frequency is 1–2%. Various ethnic groups with different cultures including Persian, Azari, Kurd, Gilaki, Lur, Turkmen, Arab, etc. exist in Iran. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is characterized by impaired biosynthesis of cortisol. 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the most common cause of CAH affecting 1 in 10000-15000 live births over the world. The frequency of the disorder is very high in Iran due to frequent consanguineous marriages. Although biochemical tests are used to confirm the clinical diagnosis, molecular methods could help to define accurate diagnosis of the genetic defect. Recent molecular approaches such as polymerase chain reaction based methods could be used to detect carriers and identify different genotypes of the affected individuals in Iran which may cause variable degrees of clinical expression of the condition. Molecular tests are also applied for prenatal diagnosis, and genetic counseling of the affected families. Here, we are willing to delineate mechanisms underlying the disease, genetic causes of CAH, genetic approaches being used in the country and recommendations for health care improvement on the basis of the molecular and clinical genetics to control and diminish such a high prevalent disorder in Iran. Also, the previous studies on CAH in Iran are gathered and a diagnostic algorithm for the genetic causes is proposed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The systematic study of the human genome indicates that the inter-individual variability is greater than expected and it is not only related to sequence polymorphisms but also to gene copy number variants (CNVs). Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD) is the most common autosomal recessive disorder with a carrier frequency of 1:25 to 1:10. The gene that encodes 21-hydroxylase enzyme, CYP21A2, is considered to be one of the most polymorphic human genes. Copy number variations, such as deletions, which are severe mutations common in 21OHD patients, or gene duplications, which have been reported as rare events, have also been described. The correct characterization of 21OHD alleles is important for disease carrier detection and genetic counselling
CYP21A2 genotyping by sequencing has been performed in a random sample of the Spanish population, where 144 individuals recruited from university students and employees of the hospital were studied. The frequency of CYP21A2 mutated alleles in our sample was 15.3% (77.3% were mild mutations, 9% were severe mutations and 13.6% were novel variants). Gene dosage assessment was also performed when CYP21A2 gene duplication was suspected. This analysis showed that 7% of individuals bore a chromosome with a duplicated CYP21A2 gene, where one of the copies was mutated.
As far as we know, the present study has shown the highest frequency of 21OHD carriers reported by a genotyping analysis. In addition, a high frequency of alleles with CYP21A2 duplications, which could be misinterpreted as 21OHD alleles, was found. Moreover, a high frequency of novel genetic variations with an unknown effect on 21-hydroxylase activity was also found. The high frequency of gene duplications, as well as novel variations, should be considered since they have an important involvement in carrier testing and genetic counseling.
PLoS ONE 02/2008; 3(5):e2138. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0002138 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a family of autosomal recessive disorders caused by mutations in genes encoding the enzymes involved in one of the 5 steps of adrenal steroid synthesis or the electron donor P450 oxidoreductase (POR) enzyme. Steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD), the principal focus of this review, accounts for about 90-95% of all CAH cases, and its biochemical and clinical severity depends on the underlying CYP21A2 gene disruption. Molecular genetic advancements have been achieved in recent years, and the aim of this review is to attempt to highlight its contribution to the comprehension and management of the disease. When possible, we will try to achieve this goal also by providing some results from our personal experience regarding: some aspects of CYP21A2 gene analysis, with basic genotype/phenotype relationships; its crucial role in both genetic counselling and in prenatal diagnosis and treatment in families at risk for 21-OHD; its help in the comprehension of the severity of the disease in patients diagnosed by neonatal screening and possibly treated before an evident salt-loss crisis or before performing adequate blood sampling; its usefulness in the definition of post ACTH 17-hydroxyprogesterone values, discriminating between non-classic, heterozygote and normal subjects; and finally the contribution of genes other than CYP21A2 whose function or dysfunction could influence 21-hydroxylase activity and modify the presentation or management of the disease.
Sexual Development 09/2010; 4(4-5):233-48. DOI:10.1159/000315959 · 2.29 Impact Factor
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