The platelet was traditionally thought only to serve as the instigator of thrombus formation, but now is emerging as a pivotal player in cardiovascular disease and diabetes by inciting and maintaining inflammation. Upon activation, platelets synthesize eicosanoids such as thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and PGE2 and release pro-inflammatory mediators including CD40 ligand (CD40L). These mediators activate not only platelets, but also stimulate vascular endothelial cells and leukocytes. These autocrine and paracrine activation processes make platelets an important target for attenuating inflammation. The growing interest and recent discoveries in platelet biology has lead to the search for therapeutic platelet targets. Recently, platelets, although anucleate, were discovered to possess the transcription factor PPARgamma. Treatment with eicosanoid and synthetic PPARgamma ligands blunts platelet release of the bioactive mediators, soluble (s) CD40L and TXA2, in thrombin-activated platelets. PPARgamma ligand treatment may prove useful for dampening unwanted platelet activation and chronic inflammatory diseases such as cardiovascular disease.
"PPARs play important roles in the regulation of metabolic pathways, including lipid biosynthesis and glucose metabolism [10,11]. This and implicated roles in cell differentiation, proliferation and inflammation have led to the hypothesis that the actions of PPARs may be associated with the prevention of cardiovascular complications [10–12]. Although platelets lack a nucleus, we and others have reported that they express a number of transcription factors including the steroid/nuclear receptors such as PPARγ, PPARβ/δ, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), oestrogen receptor (ER), retinoic X receptor (RXR) and NF-κB [13–19]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-(gamma) (PPAR(gamma)) is expressed in human platelets although in the absence of genomic regulation in these cells, its functions are unclear.
In the present study, we aimed to demonstrate the ability of PPAR(gamma) ligands to modulate collagen-stimulated platelet function and suppress activation of the glycoprotein VI (GPVI) signaling pathway.
Washed platelets were stimulated with PPAR(gamma) ligands in the presence and absence of PPAR(gamma) antagonist GW9662 and collagen-induced aggregation was measured using optical aggregometry. Calcium levels were measured by spectrofluorimetry in Fura-2AM-loaded platelets and tyrosine phosphorylation levels of receptor-proximal components of the GPVI signaling pathway were measured using immunoblot analysis. The role of PPAR(gamma) agonists in thrombus formation was assessed using an in vitro model of thrombus formation under arterial flow conditions.
PPAR(gamma) ligands inhibited collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation that was accompanied by a reduction in intracellular calcium mobilization and P-selectin exposure. PPAR(gamma) ligands inhibited thrombus formation under arterial flow conditions. The incorporation of GW9662 reversed the inhibitory actions of PPAR(gamma) agonists, implicating PPAR(gamma) in the effects observed. Furthermore, PPAR(gamma) ligands were found to inhibit tyrosine phosphorylation levels of multiple components of the GPVI signaling pathway. PPAR(gamma) was found to associate with Syk and LAT after platelet activation. This association was prevented by PPAR(gamma) agonists, indicating a potential mechanism for PPAR(gamma) function in collagen-stimulated platelet activation.
PPAR(gamma) agonists inhibit the activation of collagen-stimulation of platelet function through modulation of early GPVI signalling.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 03/2010; 8(3):577-87. DOI:10.1111/j.1538-7836.2009.03732.x · 5.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased platelet aggregation plays a significant role in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease, and is complex involving multiple mechanisms. On platelet activation, there is a transient increase in free cytoplasmic calcium (Ca(2+)), thromboxane A2 generation, and the activation of the fibrinogen receptor GPIIb/IIIa. Other modulators are also involved in platelet aggregation and include lipoxygenase metabolites, protein kinase C, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), cyclic guanine monophosphate (cGMP) and nitric oxide (NO). Garlic is reported to prevent cardiovascular disease by multiple effects, one of which is the inhibition of platelet aggregation and its ability to do this has been extensively investigated in vitro, however, in vivo studies are limited. In vitro studies indicate that garlic prevents inhibition of platelet aggregation by inhibiting cyclooxygenase activity and thus thromboxane A2 formation, by suppressing mobilization of intraplatelet Ca2+, and by increasing levels of cAMP and cGMP. Garlic also displays strong antioxidant properties and activates nitric oxide synthase (NOS), leading to an increase in platelet-derived NO. It can also interact directly with the GPIIb/IIIa receptors, thus reducing the ability of platelets to bind to fibrinogen. It is concluded that garlic inhibits platelet aggregation by multiple mechanisms and may have a role in preventing cardiovascular disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antihypertensive drug, captopril, exerted an anticoagulant effect upon clotting time as followed by prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), with prolongation of clotting observed at 4.25 x 10(-3) M and 4 x 10(-3) M captopril for PT and APTT, respectively, using commercial level I plasma. Utilizing level III plasmas, PT and APTT values were both prolonged by 4.25 x 10(-3) M captopril. Captopril (6 x 10(-3) M) also directly prolonged the clotting of thrombin in a thrombin-factor II-deficient plasma assay, whereas 5 x 10(-3) M captopril inhibited FIIDP in a thrombin-FIIDP assay. In thrombin-fibrinogen assays, pre-incubation of 2.5 x 10(-3) M captopril with fibrinogen also prolonged clotting time, whereas 3 x 10(-3) M captopril prolonged thrombin activity. These data suggest that thiol-disulfide exchange permits reduction of disulfide groups in thrombin and fibrinogen, altering their tertiary structure and physiological function. Lisinopril at a pharmacological 10(-2) M also prolonged APTT, although it lacks a thiol group. Polylysine (1k-4k) affected a prolongation of APTT at 6.7 x 10(-6) M, suggesting inhibition of clotting by a different mechanism.
Wi-Gyeong Gwon, Bonggi Lee, Eun-Ji Joung, Min-Woo Choi, Na Young Yoon, Tai Sun Shin, Chul-Woong Oh, Hyeung-Rak Kim
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