Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among healthy adults.
ABSTRACT Data on the carriage rate and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Staphylococcus aureus strains prevalent in the community are not available for many developing countries including Malaysia. To estimate the extent of community S. aureus transmission, in particular methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), the prevalence of S. aureus nasal colonization in a population of healthy adults was determined. Factors associated with S. aureus nasal carriage and antibiotic sensitivity patterns of the isolates were also analyzed.
A cross-sectional study involving 346 adults was conducted. Nasal swabs were examined for the presence of S. aureus. Epidemiological information concerning risk factors for nasal carriage was also obtained. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines. MRSA strains isolated were further subjected to pulse-field gel electrophoresis analysis.
The prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage was 23.4%. The findings also revealed that ex-smokers (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-6.32, p=0.033) and oral contraceptive users (95% CI 1.12-21.67, p=0.035) were more likely to harbor S. aureus. One person was colonized with MRSA, which was different from the hospital strain.
MRSA nasal colonization was found to be low outside of the health care environment. Smokers and oral contraceptive users have high nasal carrier rates.
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ABSTRACT: Background: This study was undertaken to evaluate Staphylococcus aureus carriage and persistence in health sciences students at the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia. Methods: Consent form and self-administered questionnaires on socio-demographics, hygienic practices, medical and medication history were distributed followed by nasal swab collection; sampling was done twice in one month interval in October and November 2013. Bacterial identification followed the standard phenotypic methods. Antibiotic susceptibility of isolates against oxacillin and cefoxitin was tested by disc diffusion method. Methicillin resistance determinant gene (mecA) was detected through polymerase chain reaction-assay. Results: S. aureus was isolated from 31.3% (60/192) and 33.3% (60/180) of the student population during the first and second sampling respectively. Among the S. aureus-positive participants, about 65% of them were persistent carrier (S. aureus was detected during both sampling exercises). Six methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were detected (four and two isolates in the two sampling events respectively) as inferred by decreased susceptibility to oxacillin and cefoxitin and presence of mecA gene; two of the strains were from a single individual. Fisher’s exact test showed no significant correlation between carriage and the tested risk factors except for the habit of touching nose and chronic illnesses (P < 0.05), with a higher incidence of S. aureus among those associated with the two risk factors. Conclusions: As far as the limited sampling period is concerned, these findings indicate that a proportion of the student population may be at infection risk. Avoiding frequent nose-touching could be one of the preventive measures.Iranian Journal of Public Health 10/2014; 43(Suppl. No.3):112-116. · 0.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus is a common human pathogen that can colonise the respiratory tract and cause infection. Here we investigate the risk factors associated with nasopharyngeal carriage of S. aureus (including methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA]) in Vietnam.Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 09/2014; · 1.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Asia was not only the most populous region in the world but inappropriate therapy, including self-medication with over-the-counter antimicrobial agents, was also a common behavior against infectious diseases. The high antibiotic selective pressure in the overcrowded inhabitants created an environment suitable for the rapid development and efficient spreading of numerous multidrug-resistant pathogens. Indeed, Asia was among the regions with the highest prevalence of healthcare-associated (HA) - methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and community-associated (CA) -MRSA in the world. Most of the hospitals in Asia were endemic for multidrug-resistant MRSA, with a ratio estimated from 28% (in Hong Kong and Indonesia) to >70% (in Korea) among all clinical S. aureus isolates in early 2010s. The strains with reduced susceptibility or highly resistant to glycopeptides were also increasingly identified in the past few years. In contrast, the rate of MRSA among CA S. aureus infection in Asian countries varied markedly, from <5% to >35%. Two pandemic HA-MRSA clones, namely multilocus sequence type (ST) 239 and ST5, were disseminated internationally in Asia, while the molecular epidemiology of CA-MRSA in Asia was characterized by clonal heterogeneity, similar to that in Europe. In this review, the epidemiology of S. aureus in both the healthcare facilities and communities in Asia are addressed, with emphasis on the prevalence, clonal structure and antibiotic resistant profiles of the MRSA strains. The novel MRSA strains from livestock animals have been considered a public health threat in western countries. The emerging livestock-associated MRSA in Asia are also included in this review.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Clinical Microbiology and Infection 06/2014; · 4.58 Impact Factor