Gonorrhoea and male bladder cancer in a prospective study

Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
British Journal of Cancer (Impact Factor: 4.84). 02/2007; 96(1):169-71. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6603510
Source: PubMed


In a prospective cohort study, a close to two-fold elevated risk of bladder cancer was found among men reporting a history of gonorrhoea (relative risk=1.92, 95% CI=1.10-3.33). Our finding warrants further examination of the role of gonorrhoea in bladder carcinogenesis.

5 Reads
  • Source
    • "Although the majority of bladder tumors formed due to Schistosoma infection are squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), adenocarcinomas and transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) or undifferentiated carcinomas can develop (Johansson & Cohen, 1997 ) Furthermore, it appears that there is a proportional increase of TCC due to schistosomal infections over time (Koraitim et al.,1995). Some researchers believe that TCC need more time to progress than SCC and are closely related with a less devastating inflammatory infiltrate (Michaud et al., 2007). "

    Schistosomiasis, 01/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-307-852-6
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Given the extended survival of patients diagnosed with cervical cancer, the large number of these women treated with radiotherapy, and the presence in this population of established cancer risk factors such as human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cigarette smoking, it is important to clarify long-term trends in second cancer risk. Using data from 104,760 one-year survivors of cervical cancer reported to 13 population-based cancer registries in Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, and the United States, we calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for second cancers overall and cancers at particular sites among women with cervical cancer, including cervical cancer patients who were treated or not treated with radiation, over more than 40 years of follow-up. Cox regression models were used to assess the time-varying association of radiotherapy with risk of second cancers and to assess the interaction of radiation treatment with age at diagnosis. All statistical tests were two-sided. Among 104,760 one-year survivors of cervical cancer, the risk of all second cancers taken together was increased to a statistically significant extent (n = 12,496; SIR = 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.28 to 1.33). Compared with the general population, in both radiotherapy (N = 52,613) and no-radiotherapy groups (N = 27,382), risks for HPV-related cancers (of the pharynx, genital sites, and rectum/anus) and smoking-related cancers (of the pharynx, trachea/bronchus/lung, pancreas, and urinary bladder) were elevated to a statistically significant extent. Cervical cancer patients treated with radiotherapy, but not those who did not receive radiotherapy, were at increased risk for all second cancers and cancers at heavily irradiated sites (colon, rectum/anus, urinary bladder, ovary, and genital sites) beyond 40 years of follow-up compared with women in the general population. The association of radiotherapy with second cancer risk was modified by age at cervical cancer diagnosis for rectum/anus, genital sites, and urinary bladder, with higher hazard ratios for second cancer at younger ages of cervical cancer. After adjustment for competing mortality, the 40-year cumulative risk of any second cancer was higher among women diagnosed with cervical cancer before age 50 (22.2%; 95% CI = 21.5% to 22.8%) than among women diagnosed after age 50 (16.4%; 95% CI = 16.1% to 16.9%). Cervical cancer patients treated with radiotherapy are at increased risk of second cancers at sites in close proximity to the cervix beyond 40 years of follow-up.
    Journal of the National Cancer Institute 12/2007; 99(21):1634-43. DOI:10.1093/jnci/djm201 · 12.58 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This article reviews the literature regarding the possible correlation between infection and occurrence of bladder cancer. The PubMed literature database was searched from inception to January 2008. Keywords of bladder, cancer, parasitic, bacterial, viral and infection, were used. Forty studies were included in the review. Several investigators support the idea that schistosomiasis is aetiologically related to the development of bladder cancer in individuals infected with Schistosoma haematobium. Approximately 70% of those with chronic schistosomiasis who have bladder cancer develop squamous cell rather than transitional cell carcinoma. Several investigators suggest that bacteria may play a role in inducing bladder cancer. Clinically, researchers have linked the development of infection, urinary stones and indwelling catheters with bladder cancer. Nevertheless, to date, no prospective study has examined the association between urinary tract infection and bladder cancer risk. The possibility that infection by human papilloma virus (HPV) is a risk factor contributing to bladder cancer has been investigated but no definite conclusions have been drawn. Thus, the debate remains open as to whether there is any direct link between chronic HPV infection and bladder cancer. Only 15 cases of vesical carcinoma have been reported, to date, in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The rare occurrence of bladder cancer during HIV infection and the lack of correlation with the laboratory markers of HIV disease progression may suggest a trivial association between two unrelated disorders. BK virus is oncogenic in newborn hamsters and can transfer to mammalian cells in vitro, but there is little consistent evidence of a link with human bladder cancer. Studies showed no correlation between herpes simplex virus (HSV) and bladder cancer, but bladder cancer becomes infected with HSV much more easily than non-neoplastic urothelium. In conclusion, with the exception of chronic infection with S. haematobium, the association between the occurrence of bladder cancer and chronic bacterial or viral infections could not be confirmed. Prospective studies with large numbers of patients and controls are required to confirm this issue.
    Scandinavian journal of urology and nephrology. Supplementum 09/2008; 42(218):79-84. DOI:10.1080/03008880802325309
Show more


5 Reads
Available from