Increased stress and smaller anterior hippocampal volume
Department of Psychiatry Research, The Zucker Hillside Hospital, North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, Glen Oaks, New York 11004, USA. Neuroreport
(Impact Factor: 1.52).
12/2006; 17(17):1825-8. DOI: 10.1097/01.wnr.0000246322.58814.b8
Animal studies indicate that stress negatively impacts hippocampal structure; little is known, however, regarding the relationship between stress and hippocampal morphology in healthy humans. Twenty-one healthy adults underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging examinations and completed the Derogatis Stress Profile. Greater psychological stress at the time of the scan correlated significantly and more strongly with anterior than posterior hippocampal volume. These findings suggest that psychological stress may be associated with structural alterations in the anterior hippocampal formation and that this relationship may differ along the rostrocaudal axis of the hippocampus. Our results may also have implications for neuropsychiatric disorders that have implicated stress and hippocampal abnormalities in their pathogenesis.
Available from: onlinelibrary.wiley.com
- "If the hippocampus is lesioned, cache recovery is reduced to chance (Krushinskayna, 1966; Sherry and Vaccarino, 1989). While the mammalian hippocampus is critical for rapid learning of complex spatial and temporal relations , it is a sensitive brain region, responsive to a broad array of variables, including: stress (Gould et al., 1997; McEwen, 1999; Bremner, 2006; Szeszko et al., 2006), hypoxia (Cervosnavarro and Diemer, 1991; Ogawa et al., 2007; Maiti et al., 2008), isolation housing (Bianchi et al., 2006; Scaccianoce et al., 2006; Stranahan et al., 2006; Ibi et al., 2008), "
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ABSTRACT: In many naturalistic studies of the hippocampus wild animals are held in captivity. To test if captivity itself affects hippocampal integrity, adult black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapilla) were caught in the fall, injected with bromodeoxyuridine to mark neurogenesis, and alternately released to the wild or held in captivity. The wild birds were recaptured after 4-6 weeks and perfused simultaneously with their captive counterparts. The hippocampus of captive birds was 23% smaller than wild birds, with no hemispheric differences in volume within groups. Between groups there was no statistically significant difference in the size of the telencephalon, or in the number and density of surviving new cells. Proximate causes of the reduced hippocampal volume could include stress, lack of exercise, diminished social interaction, or limited caching opportunity-a hippocampal-dependent activity. The results suggest the avian hippocampus-a structure essential for rapid, complex relational and spatial learning-is both plastic and sensitive, much as in mammals, including humans.
Developmental Neurobiology 12/2009; 69(14):972-81. DOI:10.1002/dneu.20736 · 3.37 Impact Factor
Available from: Sverre Holm
Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 1991. IGARSS '91. Remote Sensing: Global Monitoring for Earth Management., International; 07/1991
Available from: Mark D Kittleson
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ABSTRACT: We reviewed the indications for age and breeds of dogs who received transvenous endocardial artificial pacemaker (AP) implantation (n = 105) and complications and survival thereafter at a single institution over a 6-year period. A third-degree atrioventricular (AV) block (59%) and sick sinus syndrome (SSS; 27%) were the most common indications, along with a high-grade second-degree AV block (9%) and atrial standstill (5%). The most common breeds identified were Labrador Retriever (n = 16; 11 with a third-degree AV block), American Cocker Spaniel (n = 14; 10 with SSS), and Miniature Schnauzer (n = 13; all with SSS). Common presenting complaints were syncope (n = 66) and exercise intolerance or lethargy (n = 25). Half of the dogs (n = 52) had a history of acute onset of clinical signs (<2 weeks). Mean survival time for the 60 dogs who died during the study period was 2.2 years (range, 0.1-5.8 years). Major complications occurred in 13% of dogs and included lead displacement (n = 7), sensing problems that led to syncope (n = 3), infection at the pacemaker site (n = 1), bleeding (n = 1), and ventricular fibrillation during implantation (n = 1; successfully defibrillated). Minor complications occurred in 11 dogs (11%). The success rate of transvenous AP implantation was comparatively high (all dogs survived the first 48 hours), and the complication rate was comparatively low when compared with a previous multicenter study, most likely because of how commonly the procedure was performed and supervisory experience.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 07/2006; 20(4):877-84. DOI:10.1111/j.1939-1676.2006.tb01801.x · 1.88 Impact Factor
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