Vitamin D Deficiency in a Healthy Group of Mothers and Newborn Infants
ABSTRACT Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured in 40 healthy, mostly Black, mother-infant pairs. Although a majority of mothers received a daily prenatal multivitamin, vitamin D deficiency (<30 nmol/L), was found in 50% of mothers and 65% of their newborn infants, with a positive correlation between maternal and infant plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. Maternal vitamin D deficiency may represent an important risk factor for the development of rickets in children.
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ABSTRACT: Recently, significant attention has been paid to aspects of health associated with vitamin D deficiency in the current population; this interest has coincided with identification of paleopathological features of deficiency. Vitamin D is synthesised in the skin on exposure to sunlight, and is also obtained through a small number of dietary sources. There are a number of causes of deficiency, but those linked to sunlight and diet are most common. Latitude is important, but factors such as skin pigmentation, clothing, housing style, environmental conditions, work practices, and diet – including breastfeeding and weaning – also contribute. These factors have been the subject of a number of recent epidemiological studies illustrating diverse causes, many of which are directly linked to social and cultural factors. In this paper we review current clinical, epidemiological and bioarchaeological studies of vitamin D deficiency, highlighting the biocultural and life course dimensions that can be brought to studies of this condition in the past. We demonstrate that within the context of past communities vitamin D status represents a very significant source of information that can contribute to the analysis of the organisation, operation, and evolution of past human societies.Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 12/2014; 36:48–59. DOI:10.1016/j.jaa.2014.08.002 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pregnant women living at northerly latitudes are at risk of suboptimal vitamin D status. There is a paucity of studies correlating knowledge, attitudes and practices of vitamin D with serum levels amongst pregnant women. We aimed to determine the prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D status in pregnant women of various ethnicities attending two Dublin maternity hospitals and to assess levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning vitamin D. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 116 pregnant women of Irish, Asian, Sub-Saharan African and Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) origin. Vitamin D status was determined by measurement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD). We examined knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning vitamin D using an interview-assisted questionnaire. The median (interquartile range) 25OHD level was 25.9 (16.5-44.7) nmol L(-1) . Using a cut-off point of <30 nmol L(-1) , the proportion at risk of deficiency was significantly higher among MENA (88%; P < 0.001) and Sub-Saharan African women (68%; P = 0.019) than Irish women (36%). Eighty-two women (71%) reported they had insufficient knowledge about vitamin D and its sources. Vitamin D containing supplement usage was the strongest predictor of 25OHD levels ≥30 nmol L(-1) (odds ratio = 18.03, 95% confidence interval = 5.7256.8, P < 0.001). Suboptimal vitamin D status is common in this cohort of pregnant women, especially among those of Sub-Saharan African and MENA origin. Awareness of vitamin D dietary sources is poor among all subgroups. Recommending vitamin D containing supplements may be the best strategy at present for improving vitamin D status with a need for increased vitamin D education.Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 08/2013; 27(3). DOI:10.1111/jhn.12150 · 2.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Increasingly vitamin D deficiency is being associated with a number of psychiatric conditions. In particular for disorders with a developmental basis, such as autistic spectrum disorder and schizophrenia the neurobiological plausibility of this association is strengthened by the preclinical data indicating vitamin D deficiency in early life affects neuronal differentiation, axonal connectivity, dopamine ontogeny and brain structure and function. More recently epidemiological associations have been made between low vitamin D and psychiatric disorders not typically associated with abnormalities in brain development such as depression and Alzheimer's disease. Once again the preclinical findings revealing that vitamin D can regulate catecholamine levels and protect against specific Alzheimer-like pathology increase the plausibility of this link. In this review we have attempted to integrate this clinical epidemiology with potential vitamin D-mediated basic mechanisms. Throughout the review we have highlighted areas where we think future research should focus.Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology 07/2012; DOI:10.1016/j.yfrne.2012.07.001 · 7.58 Impact Factor