Vitamin D Deficiency in a Healthy Group of Mothers and Newborn Infants
ABSTRACT Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured in 40 healthy, mostly Black, mother-infant pairs. Although a majority of mothers received a daily prenatal multivitamin, vitamin D deficiency (<30 nmol/L), was found in 50% of mothers and 65% of their newborn infants, with a positive correlation between maternal and infant plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. Maternal vitamin D deficiency may represent an important risk factor for the development of rickets in children.
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- "Mismatch between skin colour adaptation to a high solar environment followed by migration to a lower one leaves many groups vulnerable to diseases associated with vitamin D deficiency (Jablonski and Chaplin, 2012). African Americans, for example, have been identified as being at higher risk for vitamin D deficiency and rickets (Lee et al., 2007). Similar findings for darker-pigmented individuals have been found among mothers and newborns in the UK (McAree et al., 2013) and for a multiethnic sample of young adult Canadians (Godzik et al., 2008). "
ABSTRACT: Recently, significant attention has been paid to aspects of health associated with vitamin D deficiency in the current population; this interest has coincided with identification of paleopathological features of deficiency. Vitamin D is synthesised in the skin on exposure to sunlight, and is also obtained through a small number of dietary sources. There are a number of causes of deficiency, but those linked to sunlight and diet are most common. Latitude is important, but factors such as skin pigmentation, clothing, housing style, environmental conditions, work practices, and diet – including breastfeeding and weaning – also contribute. These factors have been the subject of a number of recent epidemiological studies illustrating diverse causes, many of which are directly linked to social and cultural factors. In this paper we review current clinical, epidemiological and bioarchaeological studies of vitamin D deficiency, highlighting the biocultural and life course dimensions that can be brought to studies of this condition in the past. We demonstrate that within the context of past communities vitamin D status represents a very significant source of information that can contribute to the analysis of the organisation, operation, and evolution of past human societies.Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 12/2014; 36:48–59. DOI:10.1016/j.jaa.2014.08.002 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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- "Many cross-sectional studies have focused on dietary etiology of asthma with inconsistent results47 (Table 2). Urban living environments,48 obesity,49 and poor nutrition,50,51 include risk factors responsible for both hypovitaminosis D and asthma. It is a fact that more women from different races are deficient in vitamin D, both before and during pregnancy.52 "
ABSTRACT: Humans have the ability to synthesize vitamin D during the action of ultraviolet (UV) radiation upon the skin. Apart from the regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism, another critical role for vitamin D in immunity and respiratory health has been revealed, since vitamin D receptors have also been found in other body cells. The term "vitamin D insufficiency" has been used to describe low levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D that may be associated with a wide range of pulmonary diseases, including viral and bacterial respiratory infection, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer. This review focuses on the controversial relationship between vitamin D and asthma. Also, it has been found that different gene polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor have variable associations with asthma. Other studies investigated the vitamin D receptor signaling pathway in vitro or in experimental animal models and showed either a beneficial or a negative effect of vitamin D in asthma. Furthermore, a range of epidemiological studies has also suggested that vitamin D insufficiency is associated with low lung function. In the future, clinical trials in different asthmatic groups, such as infants, children of school age, and ethnic minorities are needed to establish the role of vitamin D supplementation to prevent and/or treat asthma.Drug Design, Development and Therapy 09/2013; 7:1003-1013. DOI:10.2147/DDDT.S50599 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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- "Studies have reported that 25- hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels and dietary intakes are suboptimal among pregnant Irish women (O'Riordan et al., 2008; Holmes et al., 2009; McGowan et al., 2011). Irish pregnant women have been highlighted as being at-risk group for vitamin D deficiency because recommendations in pregnancy restrict some of the rich sources of dietary vitamin D. Of concern is that poor maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy not only has health implications for the mother, but also for the growing foetus, which may have lasting effects for the child's health, including risks of chronic diseases such as rickets in infancy (Lee et al., 2007). The effects of maternal deficiency on bone mineral content in later childhood are at present inconclusive (Javaid et al., 2006; Lawlor et al., 2013; Walsh et al., 2013). "
ABSTRACT: Pregnant women living at northerly latitudes are at risk of suboptimal vitamin D status. There is a paucity of studies correlating knowledge, attitudes and practices of vitamin D with serum levels amongst pregnant women. We aimed to determine the prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D status in pregnant women of various ethnicities attending two Dublin maternity hospitals and to assess levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning vitamin D. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 116 pregnant women of Irish, Asian, Sub-Saharan African and Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) origin. Vitamin D status was determined by measurement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD). We examined knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning vitamin D using an interview-assisted questionnaire. The median (interquartile range) 25OHD level was 25.9 (16.5-44.7) nmol L(-1) . Using a cut-off point of <30 nmol L(-1) , the proportion at risk of deficiency was significantly higher among MENA (88%; P < 0.001) and Sub-Saharan African women (68%; P = 0.019) than Irish women (36%). Eighty-two women (71%) reported they had insufficient knowledge about vitamin D and its sources. Vitamin D containing supplement usage was the strongest predictor of 25OHD levels ≥30 nmol L(-1) (odds ratio = 18.03, 95% confidence interval = 5.7256.8, P < 0.001). Suboptimal vitamin D status is common in this cohort of pregnant women, especially among those of Sub-Saharan African and MENA origin. Awareness of vitamin D dietary sources is poor among all subgroups. Recommending vitamin D containing supplements may be the best strategy at present for improving vitamin D status with a need for increased vitamin D education.Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 08/2013; 27(3). DOI:10.1111/jhn.12150 · 1.99 Impact Factor