Article

Gifted Students With Learning Disabilities Who Are They?

Department of Psychology, Syracuse University, NY 13244, USA.
Journal of learning disabilities (Impact Factor: 1.77). 12/2006; 39(6):515-27. DOI: 10.1177/00222194060390060401
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT More than 20 years ago, psychologists first described gifted students with learning disabilities (LD). In the past decade, several sets of identification criteria have been proposed for this population. Many of the suggested assessment practices are unsupported by research in psychoeducational assessment, and some have been directly contradicted by recent research. We argue that an uncritical acceptance of the concept of concomitant giftedness and LD has led to unsound identification procedures and to interventions that are not targeted properly. Specific recommendations for future research and implications for current clinical practice are discussed.

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    • "However, since the achievement–ability discrepancy has been heavily debated (e.g., Lovett & Lewandowski, 2006), it was used only to nominate children for participation in the study, as it is the only definition that leaves room for the possibility of masking or compensation of LD in a high IQ population (see Assouline, Foley, & Whiteman, 2010, for an elaborate discussion). Further inclusion was based on a comprehensive evaluation of a child's academic and cognitive strengths and weaknesses, integrating multiple sources of information , which may unveil specific underlying deficits needed for correct identification of LD, here dyslexia, in gifted children (Assouline et al., 2010; Brody & Mills, 1997; Lovett & Lewandowski, 2006; McCoach et al., 2001; Nielsen, 2002). Prior to focusing on the combination of giftedness and dyslexia, both elements will be introduced in more detail. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated how gifted children with dyslexia might be able to mask literacy problems and the role of possible compensatory mechanisms. The sample consisted of 121 Dutch primary school children that were divided over four groups (typically developing [TD] children, children with dyslexia, gifted children, gifted children with dyslexia). The test battery included measures of literacy (reading/spelling) and cognitive abilities related to literacy and language (phonological awareness [PA], rapid automatized naming [RAN], verbal short-term memory [VSTM], working memory [WM], grammar, and vocabulary). It was hypothesized that gifted children with dyslexia would outperform children with dyslexia on literacy tests. In addition, a core-deficit model including dyslexia-related weaknesses and a compensational model involving giftedness-related strengths were tested using Bayesian statistics to explain their reading/spelling performance. Gifted children with dyslexia performed on all literacy tests in between children with dyslexia and TD children. Their cognitive profile showed signs of weaknesses in PA and RAN and strengths in VSTM, WM, and language skills. Findings indicate that phonology is a risk factor for gifted children with dyslexia, but this is moderated by other skills such as WM, grammar, and vocabulary, providing opportunities for compensation of a cognitive deficit and masking of literacy difficulties.
    Journal of learning disabilities 06/2014; · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    • "LD diagnoses are often linked to specialized instruction and academic accommodations, and academic impairment is a reasonable impetus for these services. Discrepancy definitions of LD do not require impairment, because students may have average achievement but above-average IQs, leading to students with LD diagnoses who would not meet the criteria for a disability , except for their high IQ (Gordon, Lewandowski, & Keiser, 1999; Lovett & Lewandowski, 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the consequences of classifying postsecondary students as learning disabled (LD) using five objective sets of criteria: IQ-achievement discrepancies (1.0 to 1.49 SD, 1.5 to 1.99 SD, and >or= 2.0 SD), DSM-IV criteria, and chronic educational impairment beginning in childhood. The participants were 378 postsecondary students from two universities who had been previously classified as LD and were receiving instructional and/or testing accommodations. The agreement between diagnostic models was often low, both in terms of the proportion of students identified as well as which students were identified by the models. The discrepancy models identified the largest proportions of students as LD (10% to 42%), whereas fewer than 10% of participants met either of the other sets of criteria, and 55% of the participants were not classified as LD by any of the models. Implications for further research and practices in postsecondary settings are discussed.
    Journal of learning disabilities 02/2009; 42(3):230-9. DOI:10.1177/0022219408331040 · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The growing number of high-functioning adults seeking accommodations from testing agencies and postsecondary institutions presents an urgent need to ensure reliable and valid diagnostic decision making. The potential for this population to make significant contributions to society will be greater if we provide the learning and testing accommodations to allow them access to knowledge, as well as the means to demonstrate their extraordinary abilities. The criteria and decision making used to identify high-functioning adults with learning disabilities (LD) must be robust yet flexible enough to account for individual differences, measurement fallibility, and examiner expertise. The purpose of this article is to explore legal, measurement, and clinical issues surrounding the provision of accommodations to high-functioning individuals with LD.
    Learning Disabilities Research and Practice 10/2007; 22(4):264 - 274. DOI:10.1111/j.1540-5826.2007.00255.x · 1.12 Impact Factor
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