Patterns and correlates of muscle strength loss in older women.
ABSTRACT The aging process is associated with progressive declines in muscle strength, resulting in functional disability and reduced quality of life.
The purpose of this epidemiological study was to examine the age-related loss of grip strength both cross-sectionally and longitudinally and the risk factors associated with the decline in muscle strength in a large population of community-living older women (aged 65-91 years).
Clinical visits, including physical examinations and lifestyle assessment, were conducted at baseline and biennially afterwards for a total of 10 years of follow-up. The upper-body muscle strength was measured by grip strength using a hand-held dynamometer.
The muscle strength decreased cross-sectionally (n = 9,372) as well as longitudinally (n = 5,214), as age increased, and the decline in muscle strength measured during follow-up was greater than that measured cross-sectionally at baseline. The average loss of grip strength during 10 years of follow-up was 5.1 kg, equivalent to a rate of 2.4% decline per year, with the greatest loss seen in the oldest age group (80 years or older). Cross-sectional analysis revealed that the correlates of lower muscle strength included older age, greater weight, greater height loss since age 25 years, lower protein intake, difficulties in functional tasks, and lower physical activity. In longitudinal analysis, older age, baseline strength, weight and height loss during follow-up, difficulties in functional tasks, and lower physical activity were found to be significantly and independently associated with greater loss in grip strength during follow-up.
Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of age-related loss of muscle strength yielded different rates of decline. In addition to older age and difficulties in functional tasks, a number of modifiable factors, including weight and physical activity, are associated with increased decline in muscle strength among older women.
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ABSTRACT: first, to record, in a representative sample of older men and women, longitudinal changes in (i) maximal voluntary strength of the handgrip muscles, (ii) maximal range of movement in the shoulder joint and (iii) body weight and skeletal size; second, to explore associations between the changes in muscle strength and both customary physical activity and health outcomes. longitudinal analyses of survivors measured at baseline, and 4-year and 8-year follow-ups. 350 survivors of a random sample originally aged 65 and over. over 8 years average loss of body weight was slight but significant at about 2 kg (less than 5%). Loss of shoulder range was negligible, while loss of muscle strength was significant at about 40 N (less than 2% per year). Demispan remained stable across all three points of measurement. These mean values concealed substantial variation in the rate of loss of strength, which was twice as fast in the older groups, especially in the women. These losses could not be attributed to worsening health, although this was observed. All the respondents had at least two chronic health problems at the 8-year stage. For the changes in handgrip strength, reduced reported habitual use of the handgrip muscles and increased symptoms of anxiety and depression were significant independent covariates in addition to age and time (all P < 0.0001). there are significant independent associations between the loss of muscle strength in old age and both decline in physical activity and increase in depression scores. This is strongly suggestive of causal links and confirms the need to encourage physical activity and control depression in order to maintain strength and function in old age.Age and Ageing 12/1998; 27 Suppl 3:12-6. · 3.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Decreased muscle strength with aging is associated with functional disability in older adults. However, few studies have longitudinally evaluated the rate of muscle strength loss and the risk factors for the loss in older men. This study examined the patterns and determinants of muscle strength change with aging in a healthy older male population. The study participants were 321 men (age range 51-84 yrs) recruited from population-based listings in the Pittsburgh region, USA. Grip strength was measured at baseline and after an average of 7-years of follow-up. The amount of longitudinal rate of grip strength loss was 2.8% per year (a total of 20% decline during 7-year follow-up). Although all age groups experienced a decline in strength during follow-up, the rate of loss accelerated with age. After adjusting for baseline measurement, grip strength loss ranged from 2.0% decline per year for men aged < 60 years to 3.4% decline per year for men aged 70 years or older (p < .0001). Multivariate analyses revealed that besides older age, other risk factors also contributed to the loss of muscle strength in older men, including back pain, use of calcium channel blockers, caffeine intake, and height and weight loss.The Aging Male 01/2005; 8(3-4):151-6. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies of weight change and mortality in older adults have relied on self-reported weight loss, have not evaluated weight gain, or have had limited information on health status. Our objective was to determine whether 5% weight gain or loss in 3 years was predictive of mortality in a large sample of older adults. Longitudinal observational cohort study. Four U.S. communities. Four thousand seven hundred fourteen community-dwelling older adults, age 65 and older. Weight gain or loss of 5% in a 3-year period was examined in relationship to baseline health status and interim health events. Risk for subsequent mortality was estimated in those with weight loss or weight gain compared with the group whose weight was stable. Weight changes occurred in 34.6% of women and 27.3% of men, with weight loss being more frequent than gain. Weight loss was associated with older age, black race, higher weight, lower waist circumference, current smoking, stroke, any hospitalization, death of a spouse, activities of daily living disability, lower grip strength, and slower gait speed. Weight loss but not weight gain of 5% or more was associated with an increased risk of mortality that persisted after multivariate adjustment (Hazard ratio (HR) = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.29-2.15) and was similar in those with no serious illness in the period of weight change. Those with weight loss and low baseline weight had the highest crude mortality rate, although the HR for weight loss was similar for all tertiles of baseline weight and for those with or without a special diet, compared with those whose weight was stable. This study confirms that even modest decline in body weight is an important and independent marker of risk of mortality in older adults.Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 11/2001; 49(10):1309-18. · 3.98 Impact Factor