Progressive deafness and altered cochlear innervation in knock-out mice lacking prosaposin
ABSTRACT After a yeast two-hybrid screen identified prosaposin as a potential interacting protein with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit alpha10, studies were performed to characterize prosaposin in the normal rodent inner ear. Prosaposin demonstrates diffuse organ of Corti expression at birth, with gradual localization to the inner hair cells (IHCs) and its supporting cells, inner pillar cells, and synaptic region of the outer hair cells (OHCs) and Deiters' cells (DCs) by postnatal day 21 (P21). Microdissected OHC and DC quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR and immunohistology localizes prosaposin mRNA to DCs and OHCs, and protein predominantly to the apex of the DCs. Subsequent studies in a prosaposin knock-out (KO) (-/-) mouse showed intact but slightly reduced hearing through P19, but deafness by P25 and reduced distortion product otoacoustic emissions from P15 onward. Beginning at P12, the prosaposin KO mice showed histologic organ of Corti changes including cellular hypertrophy in the region of the IHC and greater epithelial ridge, a loss of OHCs from cochlear apex, and vacuolization of OHCs. Immunofluorescence revealed exuberant overgrowth of auditory afferent neurites in the region of the IHCs and proliferation of auditory efferent neurites in the region of the tunnel of Corti. IHC recordings from these KO mice showed normal I-V curves and responses to applied acetylcholine. Together, these results suggest that prosaposin helps maintain normal innervation patterns to the organ of Corti. Furthermore, prosaposin's overlapping developmental expression pattern and binding capacity toward the nAChR alpha10 suggest that alpha10 may also play a role in this function.
- SourceAvailable from: Grayson William Marshall[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Physical cues, such as extracellular matrix stiffness, direct cell differentiation and support tissue-specific function. Perturbation of these cues underlies diverse pathologies, including osteoarthritis, cardiovascular disease and cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms that establish tissue-specific material properties and link them to healthy tissue function are unknown. We show that Runx2, a key lineage-specific transcription factor, regulates the material properties of bone matrix through the same transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ)-responsive pathway that controls osteoblast differentiation. Deregulated TGFβ or Runx2 function compromises the distinctly hard cochlear bone matrix and causes hearing loss, as seen in human cleidocranial dysplasia. In Runx2+/⁻ mice, inhibition of TGFβ signalling rescues both the material properties of the defective matrix, and hearing. This study elucidates the unknown cause of hearing loss in cleidocranial dysplasia, and demonstrates that a molecular pathway controlling cell differentiation also defines material properties of extracellular matrix. Furthermore, our results suggest that the careful regulation of these properties is essential for healthy tissue function.EMBO Reports 10/2010; 11(10):765-71. DOI:10.1038/embor.2010.135 · 7.86 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to determine the role of an influx copper transporter, CTR1, in the ototoxicity induced by cisplatin, a potent anticancer platinum analog used in the treatment of a variety of solid tumors. As determined through reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR), quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry, mouse CTR1 (Ctr1) was found to be abundantly expressed and highly localized at the primary sites of cisplatin toxicity in the inner ear, mainly outer hair cells (OHCs), inner hair cells, stria vascularis, spiral ganglia, and surrounding nerves in the mouse cochlea. A CTR1 substrate, copper sulfate, decreased the uptake and cytotoxicity of cisplatin in HEI-OC1, a cell line that expresses many molecular markers reminiscent of OHCs. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Ctr1 in this cell line caused a corresponding decrease in cisplatin uptake. In mice, intratympanic administration of copper sulfate 30 min before intraperitoneal administration of cisplatin was found to prevent hearing loss at click stimulus and 8, 16, and 32 kHz frequencies. To date, the utility of cisplatin remains severely limited because of its ototoxic effects. The studies described in this report suggest that cisplatin-induced ototoxicity and cochlear uptake can be modulated by administration of a CTR1 inhibitor, copper sulfate. The possibility of local administration of CTR1 inhibitors during cisplatin therapy as a means of otoprotection is thereby raised.The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 07/2010; 30(28):9500-9. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1544-10.2010 · 6.75 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The expression of unconventional vesicular glutamate transporter VGLUT3 by neurons known to release a different classical transmitter has suggested novel roles for signaling by glutamate, but this distribution has raised questions about whether the protein actually contributes to glutamate release. We now report that mice lacking VGLUT3 are profoundly deaf due to the absence of glutamate release from hair cells at the first synapse in the auditory pathway. The early degeneration of some cochlear ganglion neurons in knockout mice also indicates an important developmental role for the glutamate released by hair cells before the onset of hearing. In addition, the mice exhibit primary, generalized epilepsy that is accompanied by remarkably little change in ongoing motor behavior. The glutamate release conferred by expression of VGLUT3 thus has an essential role in both function and development of the auditory pathway, as well as in the control of cortical excitability.Neuron 02/2008; 57(2):263-75. DOI:10.1016/j.neuron.2007.11.032 · 15.98 Impact Factor