Progressive deafness and altered cochlear innervation in knock-out mice lacking prosaposin.
ABSTRACT After a yeast two-hybrid screen identified prosaposin as a potential interacting protein with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit alpha10, studies were performed to characterize prosaposin in the normal rodent inner ear. Prosaposin demonstrates diffuse organ of Corti expression at birth, with gradual localization to the inner hair cells (IHCs) and its supporting cells, inner pillar cells, and synaptic region of the outer hair cells (OHCs) and Deiters' cells (DCs) by postnatal day 21 (P21). Microdissected OHC and DC quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR and immunohistology localizes prosaposin mRNA to DCs and OHCs, and protein predominantly to the apex of the DCs. Subsequent studies in a prosaposin knock-out (KO) (-/-) mouse showed intact but slightly reduced hearing through P19, but deafness by P25 and reduced distortion product otoacoustic emissions from P15 onward. Beginning at P12, the prosaposin KO mice showed histologic organ of Corti changes including cellular hypertrophy in the region of the IHC and greater epithelial ridge, a loss of OHCs from cochlear apex, and vacuolization of OHCs. Immunofluorescence revealed exuberant overgrowth of auditory afferent neurites in the region of the IHCs and proliferation of auditory efferent neurites in the region of the tunnel of Corti. IHC recordings from these KO mice showed normal I-V curves and responses to applied acetylcholine. Together, these results suggest that prosaposin helps maintain normal innervation patterns to the organ of Corti. Furthermore, prosaposin's overlapping developmental expression pattern and binding capacity toward the nAChR alpha10 suggest that alpha10 may also play a role in this function.
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ABSTRACT: Normal hearing requires exquisite cooperation between bony and sensorineural structures within the cochlea. For example, the inner ear secretes proteins such as osteoprotegrin (OPG) that can prevent cochlear bone remodeling. Accordingly, diseases that affect bone regulation can also result in hearing loss. Patients with fibrous dysplasia develop trabecular bone overgrowth resulting in hearing loss if the lesions affect the temporal bones. Unfortunately, the mechanisms responsible for this hearing loss, which could be sensorineural and/or conductive, remain unclear. In this study, we used a unique transgenic mouse model of increased Gs G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling induced by expression of an engineered receptor, Rs1, in osteoblastic cells. These ColI(2.3)+/Rs1+ mice showed dramatic bone lesions that histologically and radiologically resembled fibrous dysplasia. We found that ColI(2.3)+/Rs1+ mice showed progressive and severe conductive hearing loss. Ossicular chain impingement increased with the size and number of dysplastic lesions. While sensorineural structures were unaffected, ColI(2.3)+/Rs1+ cochleae had abnormally high osteoclast activity, together with elevated tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (Rankl) mRNA expression. ColI(2.3)+/Rs1+ cochleae also showed decreased expression of Sclerostin (Sost), an antagonist of the Wnt signaling pathway that normally increases bone formation. The osteocyte canalicular networks of ColI(2.3)+/Rs1+ cochleae were disrupted and showed abnormal osteocyte morphology. The osteocytes in the ColI(2.3)+/Rs1+ cochleae showed increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13) and TRAP, both of which can support osteocyte-mediated peri-lacunar remodeling. Thus, while the ossicular chain impingement is sufficient to account for the progressive hearing loss in fibrous dysplasia, the deregulation of bone remodeling extends to the cochlea as well. Our findings suggest that factors regulating bone remodeling, including peri-lacunar remodeling by osteocytes, may be useful targets for treating the bony overgrowths and hearing changes of fibrous dysplasia and other bony pathologies.PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e94989. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Voltage-gated Ca(2+) (Ca(v))1.3 α-subunits of high voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels (HVACCs) are essential for Ca(2+) influx and transmitter release in cochlear inner hair cells and therefore for signal transmission into the central auditory pathway. Their absence leads to deafness and to striking structural changes in the auditory brain stem, particularly in the lateral superior olive (LSO). Here, we analyzed the contribution of various types of HVACCs to the total Ca(2+) current (I(Ca)) in developing mouse LSO neurons to address several questions: do LSO neurons express functional Ca(v)1.3 channels? What other types of HVACCs are expressed? Are there developmental changes? Do LSO neurons of Ca(v)1.3(-/-) mice show any compensatory responses, namely, upregulation of other HVACCs? Our electrophysiological and pharmacological results showed the presence of functional Ca(v)1.3 and Ca(v)1.2 channels at both postnatal days 4 and 12. Aside from these L-type channels, LSO neurons also expressed functional P/Q-type, N-type, and, most likely, R-type channels. The relative contribution of the four different subtypes to I(Ca) appeared to be 45%, 29%, 22%, and 4% at postnatal day 12, respectively. The physiological results were flanked and extended by quantitative RT-PCR data. Altogether, LSO neurons displayed a broad repertoire of HVACC subtypes. Genetic ablation of Ca(v)1.3 resulted in functional reorganization of some other HVACCs but did not restore normal I(Ca) properties. Together, our results suggest that several types of HVACCs are of functional relevance for the developing LSO. Whether on-site loss of Ca(v)1.3, i.e., in LSO neurons, contributes to the recently described malformation of the LSO needs to be determined by using tissue-specific Ca(v)1.3(-/-) animals.Journal of Neurophysiology 04/2012; 108(2):365-79. · 3.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mice lacking the vesicular glutamate transporter-3 (VGLUT3) are congenitally deaf due to loss of glutamate release at the inner hair cell afferent synapse. Cochlear delivery of VGLUT3 using adeno-associated virus type 1 (AAV1) leads to transgene expression in only inner hair cells (IHCs), despite broader viral uptake. Within 2 weeks of AAV1-VGLUT3 delivery, auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds normalize, along with partial rescue of the startle response. Lastly, we demonstrate partial reversal of the morphologic changes seen within the afferent IHC ribbon synapse. These findings represent a successful restoration of hearing by gene replacement in mice, which is a significant advance toward gene therapy of human deafness.Neuron 07/2012; 75(2):283-93. · 15.77 Impact Factor