Clinical syndromes and clinical outcome in patients with pulmonary embolism: findings from the RIETE registry.
ABSTRACT The influence of the clinical syndromes of pulmonary embolism (PE) on clinical outcome has not been evaluated.
The Registro Informatizado de la Enfermedad TromboEmbólica (RIETE) is an ongoing registry of consecutive patients with acute venous thromboembolism. In this study, all enrolled patients with acute PE without preexisting cardiac or pulmonary disease were classified into three clinical syndromes: pulmonary infarction, isolated dyspnea, or circulatory collapse. Their clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, and 3-month outcomes were compared.
As of January 2005, 4,145 patients with acute, symptomatic, objectively confirmed PE have been enrolled in RIETE. Of them, 3,391 patients (82%) had no chronic lung disease or heart failure: 1,709 patients (50%) had pulmonary infarction, 1,083 patients (32%) had isolated dyspnea, and 599 patients (18%) had circulatory collapse. Overall, 149 patients (4.4%) died during the first 15 days of therapy: 2.5% with pulmonary infarction, 6.2% with isolated dyspnea (odds ratio [OR], 2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7 to 3.8), and 6.5% with circulatory collapse (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.7 to 4.2). From days 16 to 90, 31 patients had recurrent PE; 5 of 14 patients (36%) with pulmonary infarction died of their new PE, compared with 5 of 10 patients (50%) with isolated dyspnea, and all 7 patients (100%) with circulatory collapse.
PE patients with pulmonary infarction (50% of the whole series) had a significantly lower mortality rate both during initial therapy and after discharge.
- SourceAvailable from: Austin Chin Chwan Ng[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Baseline hyponatremia predicts acute mortality following pulmonary embolism (PE). The natural history of serum sodium levels after PE and the relevance to acute and long-term mortality after the PE is unknown. Clinical details of all patients (n = 1023) admitted to a tertiary institution from 2000-2007 with acute PE were retrieved retrospectively. Serum sodium results from days 1, 3-4, 5-6, and 7 of admission were pre-specified and recorded. We excluded 250 patients without day-1 sodium or had <1 subsequent sodium assessment, leaving 773 patients as the studied cohort. There were 605 patients with normonatremia (sodium≥135 mmol/L throughout admission), 57 with corrected hyponatremia (day-1 sodium<135 mmol/L, then normalized), 54 with acquired hyponatremia and 57 with persistent hyponatremia. Patients' outcomes were tracked from a state-wide death registry and analyses performed using multivariate-regression modelling. Mean (±standard deviation) day-1 sodium was 138.2±4.3 mmol/L. Total mortality (mean follow-up 3.6±2.5 years) was 38.8% (in-hospital mortality 3.2%). There was no survival difference between studied (n = 773) and excluded (n = 250) patients. Day-1 sodium (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83-0.95, p = 0.001) predicted in-hospital death. Relative to normonatremia, corrected hyponatremia increased the risk of in-hospital death 3.6-fold (95% CI 1.20-10.9, p = 0.02) and persistent hyponatremia increased the risk 5.6-fold (95% CI 2.08-15.0, p = 0.001). Patients with either persisting or acquired hyponatremia had worse long-term survival than those who had corrected hyponatremia or had been normonatremic throughout (aHR 1.47, 95% CI 1.06-2.03, p = 0.02). Sodium fluctuations after acute PE predict acute and long-term outcome. Factors mediating the correction of hyponatremia following acute PE warrant further investigation.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e61966. · 3.73 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: AIM: To assess role of combined modality of mechanical fragmentation and intralesional thrombolysis in patients with massive pulmonary embolism presenting subacutely. METHODS: Eight of 70 patients presenting in tertiary care centre of North India with massive pulmonary embolism within 4 years had subacute presentation (symptom onset more than 2 wk). These patients were subjected to pulmonary angiography with intention to treat basis via mechanical breakdown and intra lesional thrombolysis. Mechanical breakdown of embolus was accomplished with 5-F multipurpose catheter to re-establish flow, followed by intralesional infusion of urokinase (4400 IU/kg over 10 min followed by 4400 IU/kg per hour over 24 h). RESULTS: Eight patients, mean age 47.77 ± 12.20 years presented with subacute pulmonary embolism (mean duration of symptoms 2.4 wk). At presentation, mean heart rate, shock index, miller score and mean pulmonary pressures were 101.5 ± 15.2/min, 0.995 ± 0.156, 23.87 ± 3.76 and 37.62 ± 6.67 mmHg which reduced to 91.5 ± 12.2/min (P = 0.0325), 0.789 ± 0.139 (P = 0.0019), 5.87 ± 1.73 (P = 0.0000004) and 27.75 ± 8.66 mmHg (P = 0.0003) post procedurally. Mean BP improved from 80.00 ± 3.09 mmHg to 90.58 ± 9.13 mmHg (P = 0.0100) post procedurally. Minor complications in the form of local hematoma-minor hematoma in 1 (12.5%), and pseudoaneurysm (due to femoral artery puncture) in 1 (12.5 %) patient were seen. At 30 d and 6 mo follow up survival rate was 100% and all the patients were asymptomatic and in New York Heart Association class 1. CONCLUSION: Combined modality of mechanical fragmentation and intralesional thrombolysis appears to be a promising alternative to high risk surgical procedures in patients with subacute massive pulmonary embolism.World journal of cardiology. 05/2013; 5(5):141-147.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Assessment of pre-test probability of pulmonary embolism (PE) and prognostic stratification are two widely recommended steps in the management of patients with suspected PE. Some items of the Geneva prediction rule may have a prognostic value. We analyzed whether the initial probability assessed by the Geneva rule was associated with the outcome of patients with PE. METHODS: In a post-hoc analysis of a multicenter trial including 1,693 patients with suspected PE, the all-cause death or readmission rates during the 3-month follow-up of patients with confirmed PE were analyzed. PE probability group was prospectively assessed by the revised Geneva score (RGS). Similar analyses were made with the a posteriori-calculated simplified Geneva score (SGS). RESULTS: PE was confirmed in 357 patients and 21 (5.9%) died during the 3-month follow-up. The mortality rate differed significantly with the initial RGS group, as with the SGS group. For the RGS, the mortality increased from 0% (95% Confidence Interval: [0-5.4%]) in the low-probability group to 14.3% (95% CI: [6.3-28.2%]) in the high-probability group, and for the SGS, from 0% (95% CI: [0-5.4%] to 17.9% (95% CI: [7.4-36%]). Readmission occurred in 58 out of the 352 patients with complete information on readmission (16.5%). No significant change of readmission rate was found among the RGS or SGS groups. CONCLUSIONS: Returning to the initial PE probability evaluation may help clinicians predict 3-month mortality in patients with confirmed PE. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00117169).Thrombosis Research 05/2013; · 3.13 Impact Factor