Genomic organization of the T-cell receptor gamma gene and PCR detection of its clonal rearrangement in canine T-cell lymphoma/leukemia.
ABSTRACT Because the T-cell receptor gamma (TCRgamma) gene is rearranged at an early stage of T-cell development in both TCRalphabeta and TCRgammadelta lineages, it has been preferentially targeted to detect T-cell clonality in human lymphoma/leukemia. We isolated 22 independent cDNA clones encoding canine TCRgamma and the following analysis of nucleotide sequences using the dog genome database revealed that the canine TCRgamma locus contains at least four repertories of variable genes that can be organized into two distinct subgroups and six repertories of joining genes belonging to two distinct subgroups according to the nucleotide sequence similarity. The findings allowed us to design PCR primers that were directed to the conserved or specific nucleotide sequences for each subgroup of variable and joining genes. By using four different combinations of primers, a PCR-based analysis was performed on cell samples collected from T-cell lymphoma/leukemia and B-cell lymphoma cases and hyperplastic and normal lymph nodes. All cell samples from 11 T-cell malignancy cases exhibited clonal amplification by two out of four primer combinations. This finding was considered to be valuable in PCR-based analysis for detecting T-cell clonality in canine lymphoma/leukemia.
- SourceAvailable from: Anton W Langerak[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In a European BIOMED-2 collaborative study, multiplex PCR assays have successfully been developed and standardized for the detection of clonally rearranged immunoglobulin (Ig) and T-cell receptor (TCR) genes and the chromosome aberrations t(11;14) and t(14;18). This has resulted in 107 different primers in only 18 multiplex PCR tubes: three VH-JH, two DH-JH, two Ig kappa (IGK), one Ig lambda (IGL), three TCR beta (TCRB), two TCR gamma (TCRG), one TCR delta (TCRD), three BCL1-Ig heavy chain (IGH), and one BCL2-IGH. The PCR products of Ig/TCR genes can be analyzed for clonality assessment by heteroduplex analysis or GeneScanning. The detection rate of clonal rearrangements using the BIOMED-2 primer sets is unprecedentedly high. This is mainly based on the complementarity of the various BIOMED-2 tubes. In particular, combined application of IGH (VH-JH and DH-JH) and IGK tubes can detect virtually all clonal B-cell proliferations, even in B-cell malignancies with high levels of somatic mutations. The contribution of IGL gene rearrangements seems limited. Combined usage of the TCRB and TCRG tubes detects virtually all clonal T-cell populations, whereas the TCRD tube has added value in case of TCRgammadelta(+) T-cell proliferations. The BIOMED-2 multiplex tubes can now be used for diagnostic clonality studies as well as for the identification of PCR targets suitable for the detection of minimal residual disease.Leukemia 01/2004; 17(12):2257-317. · 10.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although the diagnosis of canine leukemia and lymphoma in advanced stages is usually uncomplicated, some presentations of the disease can be a diagnostic challenge. In certain situations, lymphoma and leukemia can be difficult to distinguish from a benign reactive proliferation of lymphocytes. Because clonality is the hallmark of malignancy, we have developed an assay that uses the polymerase chain reaction to amplify the variable regions of immunoglobulin genes and T-cell receptor genes to detect the presence of a clonal lymphocyte population. The assay detected clonally rearranged antigen receptor genes in 91% of the 77 dogs with lymphoid malignancy. Of the 24 dogs tested, that were either healthy or had clearly defined conditions not related to lymphoid malignancy, a clonally rearranged antigen receptor gene was found in one (a dog with Ehrlichia canis infection). Gene rearrangement was appropriate for the immunophenotype (immunoglobulin gene rearrangement in B-cell leukemias and T-cell receptor gene rearrangement in T-cell leukemias). Dilution analysis showed that the clonal rearrangement could be detected when 0.1-10% of the DNA was derived from neoplastic cells, depending on the source tissue. Potential applications of this assay include the diagnosis of lymphoma or leukemia in biopsy samples, cavity fluids, fine needle aspirates, bone marrow and peripheral blood; the determination of lineage (B or T cell); staging of lymphoma; and detection of residual disease after chemotherapy.Veterinary Pathology 02/2003; 40(1):32-41. · 1.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The T cell receptor gamma (TCRG) gene configuration was established in a large series of 126 T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) patients using combined Southern blotting (SB) and heteroduplex PCR analyses. The vast majority of TALL (96%) displayed clonal TCRG gene rearrangements, with biallelic recombination in 91% of patients. A small immature subgroup of CD3- T-ALL (n = 5) had both TCRG genes in germline configuration, three of them having also germline TCRD genes. In five patients (4%) combined SB and PCR results indicated oligoclonality. In five rearrangements detected by SB, the Vgamma gene segment could not be identified suggesting illegitimate recombination. Altogether, 83% of TCRG gene rearrangements involved either the most upstream Vgamma2 gene (including four cases with interstitial deletion of 170 bp in Vgamma2) and/or the most downstream Jgamma2.3 segment, which can be perceived as 'end-stage' recombinations. Comparative analysis of the TCRG gene configuration in the major immunophenotypic subgroups indicated that TCRgammadelta+ T-ALL display a less mature immunogenotype as compared to TCRalphabeta+ and most CD3- cases. This was reflected by a significantly increased usage of the more downstream Vgamma genes and the upstream Jgamma1 segments. Comparison between adult and pediatric T-ALL patients did not show any obvious differences in TCRG gene configuration. The high frequency, easy detectability, rare oligoclonality, and frequent 'end-stage' recombinations make TCRG gene rearrangements principal targets for PCR-based detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) in T-ALL. We propose a simple heteroduplex PCR strategy, applying five primer combinations, which results in the detection of approximately 95% of all clonal TCRG gene rearrangements in T-ALL. This approach enables identification of at least one TCRG target for MRD monitoring in 95% of patients, and even two targets in 84% of T-ALL.Leukemia 08/2000; 14(7):1208-14. · 10.16 Impact Factor