Autosomal-recessive syndrome with alopecia, hypogonadism, progressive extra-pyramidal disorder, white matter disease, sensory neural deafness, diabetes mellitus, and low IGF1. Am J Med Genet 143A:149-160
We explored the manifestations of an autosomal-recessive multisystemic disorder in several Saudi families. Recognized causes of progressive extra-pyramidal disorder and white matter disease were excluded and the neurological, imaging, endocrine, and skin manifestations of this syndrome described. The onset of these symptoms in these patients began in early adolescence and progressed more rapidly in males. All affected patients had total or partial alopecia, clinical and chemical evidence of hypogonadism (low levels of estradiol and testosterone); females had clear evidence of hypogonadism (streak or absent ovaries), and some patients had diabetes mellitus and/or sensorineural deafness. The constant biochemical abnormality was the low IGF-1. The neurological manifestations included moderate to severe intellectual decline and abnormality of muscle tone and posture with choreo-athetoid and dystonic movements resulting in gait difficulty, dysarthria, difficulty swallowing, and scoliosis. The MRI of brain demonstrated white matter involving cerebellum, brain stem, and cerebral structures, as well as abnormal decreased signal intensity in the basal ganglia with involvement of the substantia nigra. We conclude that the association of hypogonadism, alopecia, and persistent low IGF-1 is a significant autosomal recessive syndrome; it is prevalent in Saudi Arabia. We also demonstrate that the progressive extra-pyramidal disorder, white matter disease, and abnormal signals of the basal ganglia are common features of this syndrome. Sensorineural deafness and diabetes mellitus were recognized features.
"The mutation identified in our patients, a base pair deletion in exon 4 of C2orf37, has been reported in a total of seven families from Saudi Arabia [Alazami et al., 2008], thus likely representing a founder mutation in this region. Al-Semari and Bohlega presented 26 patients with WSS from 12 families in Saudi Arabia [Al-Semari and Bohlega, 2007]. Although these families seem to share the same founder mutation and comprise a fairly genetically homogeneous population, our patients show that variability in clinical presentation exists. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypogonadism, alopecia, diabetes mellitus, mental retardation, and extrapyramidal syndrome [also known as Woodhouse-Sakati syndrome (WSS)] is a rare autosomal recessive neuroendocrine and ectodermal disorder. The syndrome was first described by Woodhouse and Sakati in 1983, and 47 patients from 23 families have been reported so far. We report on an additional seven patients (four males and three females) from two highly consanguineous Arab families from Qatar, presenting with a milder phenotype of WSS. These patients show the spectrum of clinical features previously found in WSS, but lack evidence of diabetes mellitus and extrapyramidal symptoms. These two new families further illustrate the natural course and the interfamilial phenotypic variability of WSS that may lead to challenges in making the diagnosis. In addition, our study suggests that WSS may not be as infrequent in the Arab world as previously thought.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 11/2011; 155A(11):2647-53. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.34219 · 2.16 Impact Factor
"We have found novel regulatory genes for cochlear development whose normal expression and activation depends on IGF-I. Severe syndromic deafness in man is associated with null mutations in IGF1 , ,  and also with low levels of IGF-I . Accordingly, the Igf1−/− mouse shows poor growth rates, high mortality, profound sensorineural deafness and late postnatal morphological alterations in the cochlea  We have shown previously that the absence of IGF-I causes poor myelination and delayed maturation of auditory neurones that suffer apoptosis during the early postnatal mouse development P5-P20 , . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) provides pivotal cell survival and differentiation signals during inner ear development throughout evolution. Homozygous mutations of human IGF1 cause syndromic sensorineural deafness, decreased intrauterine and postnatal growth rates, and mental retardation. In the mouse, deficits in IGF-I result in profound hearing loss associated with reduced survival, differentiation and maturation of auditory neurons. Nevertheless, little is known about the molecular basis of IGF-I activity in hearing and deafness.
A combination of quantitative RT-PCR, subcellular fractionation and Western blotting, along with in situ hybridization studies show IGF-I and its high affinity receptor to be strongly expressed in the embryonic and postnatal mouse cochlea. The expression of both proteins decreases after birth and in the cochlea of E18.5 embryonic Igf1(-/-) null mice, the balance of the main IGF related signalling pathways is altered, with lower activation of Akt and ERK1/2 and stronger activation of p38 kinase. By comparing the Igf1(-/-) and Igf1(+/+) transcriptomes in E18.5 mouse cochleae using RNA microchips and validating their results, we demonstrate the up-regulation of the FoxM1 transcription factor and the misexpression of the neural progenitor transcription factors Six6 and Mash1 associated with the loss of IGF-I. Parallel, in silico promoter analysis of the genes modulated in conjunction with the loss of IGF-I revealed the possible involvement of MEF2 in cochlear development. E18.5 Igf1(+/+) mouse auditory ganglion neurons showed intense MEF2A and MEF2D nuclear staining and MEF2A was also evident in the organ of Corti. At P15, MEF2A and MEF2D expression were shown in neurons and sensory cells. In the absence of IGF-I, nuclear levels of MEF2 were diminished, indicating less transcriptional MEF2 activity. By contrast, there was an increase in the nuclear accumulation of FoxM1 and a corresponding decrease in the nuclear cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1).
We have defined the spatiotemporal expression of elements involved in IGF signalling during inner ear development and reveal novel regulatory mechanisms that are modulated by IGF-I in promoting sensory cell and neural survival and differentiation. These data will help us to understand the molecular bases of human sensorineural deafness associated to deficits in IGF-I.
PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(1):e8699. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0008699 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Woodhouse Sakati syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive neuroendocrine disorder characterized by the combination of alopecia, hypogonadism, diabetes mellitus, mental retardation, sensory neural deafness and extrapyramidal features. Movement disorders mainly consist of dystonia and chorea of the limbs with onset in adolescence. Facial muscles are usually spared, but dysarthria is common. Pyramidal features and peripheral abnormalities are inconsistent features. Most of the reported families are from the Middle Eastern countries although rarely Caucasian cases have been described. Here we present clinical details of two affected siblings from a new Middle East family and draw attention of movement disorder specialists to this entity. We summarize findings from pervious cases with particular focus on neurological and movement disorder features.
Movement Disorders 03/2008; 23(4):592-6. DOI:10.1002/mds.21886 · 5.68 Impact Factor
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